(navigation image)
Home American Libraries | Canadian Libraries | Universal Library | Community Texts | Project Gutenberg | Children's Library | Biodiversity Heritage Library | Additional Collections
Search: Advanced Search
Anonymous User (login or join us)
Upload
See other formats

Full text of "Scientific American, July 10, 1915"

) 






















:?s 






SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN 

Founded 1845 
NEW YORK, SATURDAY, JULY 10 ? 1915 



Published Munn <\ Co., In n >orated. Charles Mien Munn, Pr< 

dent; Frederick Converse Beach, S arj 
< »n D Munn, I rea*uroi 
all al ' 1 1 Bi nadvvaj . New ^ n 



i 



i ,i the Posl Office of Sew \ ork, \ V., as Second I I is* Matt 

Entered as Second ( lass Mattel al the Posl ( > e Dep irtment, 

Canada. 
i rndc Mark Registered in the i trited SI il P itei i >ffl< i 

Copj i -iirlit i>m:) i>\ Munn & ' »., Inc 
Ulust.ral rtlcles must not be reproduced wtthnul il 

permission. 

Subscription Rates 

Sub* ption one \ ear "" 

Postage prepaid in I nited Stab in 'tensions, 

Mexico, Cu and Panani i. 

Subscriptions for For« mn tries, one year, postage prepaid, 4.i 
ip1 [ons for Canada, on< lostage pi l 

The Scientific American Publications 

Scientific American stablishcd 1845; per year $8.00 

Scienti erican supplement (established 1876) — '* 

Amei in Homes and Gardens " '* 8.00 

The combined subscription rates and rates to >un tries includ- 

ing Canada, will ))«• furnished upon application. 
Remit by postal or express money order, bank aft oi check. 

Munn & Co., Inc., 233 Broadway, New York 

The Editor is .-Uv, s gi hi to i fo examination illustrated 

articles on sul its of timels interest. It" the photographs are sharp 
the articles short, and the i authentic, the contributions will ri 

ceive special atten >n. A tpted articles will be p ild for at regular 
space rates. 



The purpose of this journal is to record accurately, 
simply, and int< stingly, tin world's progress in scien- 
tific knowledge and industrial achievement. 



The War Significance of Cotton 

FOB warring nations, cotton is king. In the past 
otton has been Important in war merely ,-is raw 
materia] tor textile mills, the amount of it used 
to make smokeless powder having been very small com* 
pared with that needed for ordinary Industrial us< 
Cotton is the principal ingredient by weight in all 
keless powders, which consist of nitro-cellulose of 
about 12% per cent nitration. Strang as it may seem, 
nmr otton is now being consumed in Oerniany for the 
manufacture <»f smokeless powder than for Indus- 
trial use. 

The greatest surprise of the war hag been the vast 
expenditure of artillery ammunition. Not even the far- 
seeing German Genera] Staff had contemplated such 
enormous expenditures, so enormous, in fact, that the 
entire ammunition supply of the United stairs Army 
would not last the German army two days, in their 
recent successful onslaught on the Tarnow-Gorlice front 
f the Russian army in Galida the German artillery 
used, it has been stated by Lloyd-George, 200,000 rounds 
of ammunition from inch to 12-inch in caliber in a 
single hour. So great is the defensive power of mod- 
ern machine guns and rifles, that troops strongly In 

trenched can be driven out only by destroying tin 

barbed-wire entanglemi s, leveling the parapets of tfc 
trenches to the ground and sending forward Uifantrj 
before the enemy has recovered from the shock Induced 
by a storm of explosive shell. Gen. Castelnau has said 
that shock must now be produced by an overpowering 

artillery fire Instead Of by attacks of infantry. Ll< l- 

George has recently stated that Germany is producin 
250,000 rounds of field-gun ammunition a day. 

While the majority of German guns are of about 
8-inch caliber, • has immense numbers of heavy guns 
ad howitzers ranging from t-lnch caliber to 12-inch, 
ad she has b( n using large quantities of heavj artil- 
lery ammunition. The amount of cotton used for every 
round tired win average well over four pounds. Th< 
nditure of cotton in Germany K therefore, about 
lour times 250,000 pounds, or 1,000,000 pounds per da; 

That figure does not include the amount used for small- 

lias ammunition, that needed for the navy, or that 
used to make clothing for the army. One million 
pounds of cotton per daj Is 2,000 bales of 500 pounds 
each or 730,000 bales per annum, about one half the 
usual exportation of cotton to Germany. Germany's re 
serve supply of powder has undoubtedly been used up 
by this time and her future ability to wage war for a 
long period depends on a regular supply of cotton from 

the tinted Stales; lor all other SOUTCeS of suppl.x an 
Closed to her. 

England is making the most strenuous efforts to pre 
vent cotton from reaching Germany. She realizes full 
well that If she can stop these imp.. its Germany will 

be beaten within a Cotton i- [liferent from cop- 

per, another essential, In that copper Is Indestructible 
and remains in some form or other in the country Into 
which it Is Imported, while cotton d ippears shorn 
after being manufactured More* i per cartridge 

< -: maj be remelted and u I over and over again. 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN 

In addition. Germany has considerable copper ore 
within her boundaries, and can eke out her copper sup 
ply by smelting ores which in time of peace could not 
he profitably used, she must import cotton, however, 

nol only to clothe her population and armies, hut to 

furnish her men with ammunition, without which their 
skill, courage and patriotism could not avail. 

We have heard much talk lately about the "starva- 
tion of women and children" in Germain" as the result 
of Great Britain's blockade. Senator Beveridge in his 
Illuminating articles has exposed that fable. 

it is a cotton starvation, not a food starv on, that 
ermam fears. 



The Navy's Most Pressing Need 

IF a layman were to ask any of the high ranking 
officers of our Navy what is absolutely the most 
pressing need of the United states Navy to-day. 
he would unhesitatingly reply "Our most urgent need 
is more officers and men. and particularly the former.'' 

The highly technical character of the modern fighting 

ship, filled as il is with weapons of the nicest precision 

calling for most expert handling If they are to be at all 
effective, has raised the personnel to a point of im- 
portance as an element In the winning of battles which 

it never before held in all the history of naval war fan 

A modern battleship costing $15,000,000, and capable 

If ably handled and fought, Of putting an enemy OUt 

of action in a brief quarter of an hour, if it be under 
manned and under-officered, or If its officers, fresh 
from the naval academy, are lacking In sea experience 

may easily ba\e its efficiency CUt down seventy-li \ e per 
cent. 

One of the most able and enthusiastic of the officers 
of the Atlantic Fleet, speaking of the shortage of officers 
uid of the fact that very young men from Annapolis, 
because of this shortage, are filling positions on the 
ships which should be filled by officers of higher rank 
and long experience, stated to the writer that, in this 
respect, the Atlantic Fleet at the present hour Is fully 

t0 per cent below the standard of full etli-ieiicy. 

••A rather strong statement." yon say. Nevertheless, 

it is amply sustained by a i irison with con. Ill ions 

in other navies in that of Germany, for instance. 

where we find that there is oi llieer to every nine 

enlisted men. whereas in our Navy there is only one 
officer to even seventeen men. Last year, moreover, 

with a total mimhor "f pttlistcd • ,»f f»1 n i <; uv 

* 

possessed 2,615 warrant officers, wh< as our Navy, with 

about 52,000 men. had only some 700 warrant officers. 

The German navy, furthermore, had id flag officers last 

year, as against Is in the United State Navy, and she 

had a total of 351 captain and commanders as against 
only 182 in the Dnlted states Navy. 

For Information as to the fatal shortage of men. 
amounting to some 18.000, we cannot do better than 
turn to the testimony of Admiral Badger, formerly 
Commander-in-Chief of the Atlantic Fleet, as given 
pi ntly before the House Committee on Naval Affairs. 
In answering the question regarding the number of 

Ofl rs and men i ,|ed to fully man all the ships of 
the Navy for war with Qavy crews, the Admiral stated 

hat there are required 64.000. Not all of these would 
be with the fighting fleet however, for 6,849 would be 
required for the hospitals: prisoners 1 guards, traveling, 
etc.; the insular force; navy yards and shore stations; 
radio stations; recruiting >ns; training stations; 

station ships and for manning navy yard tugs, etc. 
Adding these 6,849 to the 64,000 required for the -hips 
of tin Navy, gives a total of 70,849 men. At pres at 
there are on the roll 52,293 men. and the difference 
1.8,556, represents the additional enlisted men required 

fully to man all ships with \avy crews. 

On the subject of shortage of line officers Admiral 
Badger testifies that on January 1st, 1914, we had 1,783 
line officers on the active list. He stated that to officer 
the fleet for war and provide for the necessary shore 
establishments, without any provision for casualties. 
2,716 line officers are required. The differ.. nee. 933, 
represents the present shortage of line officers. The 
shortage of staff officers is in proportion. 

And be ii remembered In the presence of these figures 

that it takes Jen years to make a na\al officer of all- 
round efficiency. 

So now. gentle reader, follow yrvy closely what Ad- 
miral Badger has to say as to Administration policy: 
The number of men needed for the Navy depends very 
largely upon the policy which the Administration may 
decide upon in administering the Navj how many 
ships it is proposed to maintain In commission ready 

for war and how many ships are to be kept in material 

condition in reserve, ready to be used in ease of emerg- 
ency. If the policy of maintaining all the ships of the 
Navy available for war of the first and second line is 

adopted, then we are short of men in the \a\y BOW. 

Those ships of fighting value held In reserve should, in 
my opinion, have aucleu -reus ,,f such si/.,, as not only 
to be able to keep the ships in good material condition, 
1,1,1 a^o to permit of su< h organization and drill, in 



July 10. 191 

eluding target practice with guns and torpedoes, a 
will keep them thoroughly trained for Immediate - 

Vice in war." 

And ,\ et it has recently been decided i<> the Adm 
istration, we understand, to reduce the strength of the 

Atlantic Fleet by I ships, or from 21 to IT ill the I in 
The reduction will make for economy, and a showi: 

iii economy will be very popular- perhaps; but will 
make for the efficiency of our first line of defei 
against a stroke which may fall upon as as a lightnj 
bolt out of a summer's sky? 

Atrocities in the Scholars' War 

AMONG the atrocities charged to the Get 
account during the present European war •. • 
the numerous executions of persons held 
hostages for the good behavior of the communities I n 

which these victims were taken, and. again, the win 

sale killing of non-combatants in certain community 
where sporadic "sniping" had occurred. Assuming tl 
these cases of vicarious punishment have frequent 
happened, and assuming also that the general pub 
views such measures with righteous Indignation, 
cannot help feeling that something of the same sor 
with the mhs reversed, has occurred in the treatment 
of so-called "enemy" members by the various ici 
ami technical societies. 

An editorial in a recent number of The Engineer ad- 
mits that '"it has always been one of the boast- i 

science that it did not recognize the boundaries create 
by geographers or politicians, and that even differences 
of race and language did not imply a divergence of 
interests when the claims of science wen it issue" — 
which wholesome sentiment is followed by one of 
different sort: "it is : , thou d pities that rids -rear 
tradition has been broken, but it can be honestly sai 
that ii is not the fault of Great Britain or her alii 

The truth is that the way in which Germany has chose 

to wage war, culminating in the wholesale murders 
which accompanied the sinking of the jLusitania,' lias 
put her people outside the pale of civilization, and even 
sane-minded engineers and dear-thinking scientists have 

realized that it is no longer possible t< allow the na- 
tionalities now at war with us to claim evea the kn 

[hip implied by membership of the same technical 
society." The same editorial urges all British scientific 
ami technical societies to expel their members who ar 

citizens of hostile countries: as, indeed, many of these 

Is this i sonable? If is alto-ether possible that the 

persons who could be justly held responsible for th 
present war might be counted on your fingers — perha] * 

the fingers of one hand. We are not prepared j.. nam 

them, or to state their number more definitely, bn 

certain it is that the average citizen of any one of the 

warring countries Ls, at this Juncture, the victim of 
circumstances not of his making. 

As to German scholars, we know that some of tl \ 
have proclaimed Intense partisan sentiments in regard 
to the struggle; but we feel sure there are manj otl 3 
who look upon it merely as an unspeakable nuisance, 
for which German politicians and militarists are at 
least m much to bin me as anybody else. Surely iu 
philosophical Germany there are still philosophers who 
look down from a serene height upon the squabbles 

misguided humanity. 

The great European war is. in fact, senseless and 
Infamous. Would it nol be becoming of the le l 
societies In the belligerent countries to show their d 
testation of it by ignoring Its existence just as far as 

possible".' 

The wholesale expulsion f "enemy" members by the 
British societies is. we believe, not only unjust and 
puerile, but In also seriously inimical to the success i 

the task which will pres,. ntly arise of renewing th ■ 

co-operative relations anion- the various peoples of the 
earth upon which the progress of knowledge is > 
dependent, 

W glad to learn that a more temperate plan : 3 

been followed by the Astronomical Society of 1 

which, of its one hundred and fifty seven "enemy" mem- 
ber-., has definitely expelled only one. who was a sig- 
natory to the address "To the Civilized World." r i ■ 
rest have been suspended, pending action in each 1 
on its own merits, to be taken after the close of the war 



The German Scientific Station in Spitsbergen, which 
was founded in 1913 by Professor Hergesell, and I 
been constantly in operation, summer and winter, sii 
that time, ceased its valuable activities at the butbrt 
of the European war, A party of scientific men whic 
bad sailed for Spitzbergen to relieve fchestaffwa lied, 

and the pariy at the station also succeeded in getting 
back to Germany safelj with all their instruments an 
other equipment. This institution has carried on 1 
tensive investigations of the upper air with bailoo 

and was. in fact, founded primarily to study the 1 1- 

ditions likely to be encountered by the expedition which 
Count Zeppelin pro] ed to take to the North IV a 
an airship, 



Juh 10, L915 



Notes on the War 






\ 






* 



♦ 



V 






I 












Foodstuffs for Great Britain.— The Hoard of Trade 

returns go to prove that the dread of a shortage of food- 
stuffs in Great Britain in the event of a war of magnitude 
;|S unfounded. Ln fact the food imports for the month 
of April show big increases. Thus in April. 1914, in 
round figures, the food imports wen- valued at $:tt)K,000,- 
iwx). whereas for the same month in L915 they totaled 
$368,000,000, an increase of $(UUXX),(KK). Exports in 
oorresponding months sho wed a decrease of ^JS.OOO,- 

fMKI. For four months the imports showed an increase 

of $110,000,000 ami the exports a decrease of $280,000,- 

<MM) Tin- increase, in imports of grain and Hour for 
April were about Sl>0,(KX),<XX). Imports of meat, includ- 
ing animals for food, increased over $7,000,000; raw 

materials and articles unmanufactured increased about 

SX0.01HUH)0. Here we have another object lesson in the 
value of the command of the sea. 

Italian Preparedness.— Probably none of the countries 

at war, not even Germany herself, entered the conflict 
uiih such a olearly-deftned plan of campaign and so 

perfectly prepared with the means to carry it on as did 
l,aly The redemption of the lost territory has been the, 

dream of Italian statesmen and soldiers for half a 

century -a fact which was perfectly well known to Aus- 
tria who had strengthened by every artificial means of 
a military character tl naturally strong defenses afforded 

by her mountain-ribbed frontiers. The Italians were well 
aware that there was but one way to break through 
the fortified passes of the Alps and across the Btrongly 
defended river Isonzo, namely, by the battering power 
of heavy and well-served artillery. The steady progress 
of [taly in the extremely difficult task she has set herseli 
would indicate that the .lories we have heard of the 
excellence of the Italian artillery are will founded. Thus 
far th mpaign would seem to ha> been one of heavy 
howitzers in which the numbers of infantry engaged, 
relatively to the other theaters of war, have been small. 
Essen n b. Skoda. —Apropos of our article last week on 
the Skoda big guns, we understand that the Austrians 
feel that much of the credit for the successful work of 
the Teutonic artillery in the war. which should have 
been given to Austria, has been credited to the German 

fa >ries— such at least was tin- impression conveyed to 

us by arec I Austr slier at this office. The following 

taken from Navy and Army (British) seems rather like 
an echo of the same sentiments. Says our CO n temporary: 
"On of the most remarkable ktures of the war has 

been the extraordinary success of the Austrian big gun. 
Essen lias loomed so hugely in tin limelight, ami so 

much has been said about the woad< Kaupp'.-. as 

to jure the significance of the Austrian artillery 

engineers. But Skoda h lipsed Essen. The Germans 
had to wait until they could bring up the big Austrian 
mortars to pound liege, Namur and Antwerp to pieces. 
To the man in the street Skoda is unknown, but it is an 
Aust n workshop of destruction as I ensive and 
wonderful as that of ! n. To tin- Allies it is far more 
dangerous, as its big guns have never failed." 

Peril at the Dardanelles. -The general public seems 
to have failed to grasp the tremendous significance of 

th.- appearance and sue© ful work of submarines in 
the operations at the Dardanelles. On the Allied side the 
brilliant feat <>f a British submarine in penetrating to 
the Sea of Marmora has jeopardized the Turkish lines 
of communication by sea, several transports having 
been -unk already. If communications by land have 
ht-en interrupted and rendered impossible at the neck 

of the Isthmus of (lallipoli by the flanking fire of Allied 
warships, the Turkish army is liable to be cut off from 

its base. On the side of the allied French and English 
troops the situation is even more dai rous; for the land 
forces on tin- western end of Galtipoli Peninsula must be 
dependent for ammunition and many other indispensable 
supplies upon fi ommunication with the transports 
and supply ships. These forces also are dependent 
largely for their success upon the co-operation of heavy 
gunfire from the warships. 

Trans-Atlantic Attack by Submarine. — Whether it be 
true or not that a German submarine navigated the 
distance from the North Sea round the coa-ts of Scotland 
and Ireland and through the Straits of Gibraltar to the 

Dardanelles or not, it is a fact that it would be perfectly 
possible for a flotilla of German submarines to negotiate 
the trans-Atlantic pa* age and maintain itself off our 

coast by means of secret bases in the West Indies, or 
even on the very coast of the United States itself. By 
filling its ballast tanks with oil in place of water, at the 
tart of its voyage; by traveling at slow sp> I on the 
surface by night, and even by day when no vessels were 
in sight, it would be p< ible for one of the largest 
submarines to reach our coast with a reserve of oil fuel 
sufficient for several days cruising. A submarine base 

for replenishment of oil supplies would be a very small 
affair, and it could be snugly local.. I on some unfre- 
quented stretch of our coast, especially in the Nortl 
ami the refilling of oil tanks could be done at night. 

It is as well to remember that a surprise submarine 

attack within our harbors and naval bases is to-day 

phy ally i cticable. 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN 



Science 

General Thomili H, Hubbard, well known as a 

Maeanas of polar exploration, died in New York city 

May 19th. Prom 1908 until the time of his <l bh he was 

president of the Peary Arctic Club. His name is per- 
manently inscribed on the Arctic map at Cape Thomas 
Hubbard and the Hubbard Glacier. 

The Permanent Wild Life Protection Fund, which 

Mr. W. T. Hornaday has been instrumental m collecting 

.luring the past two years, now amounts to more than 
$73,000. The income of this fund is to be used for con- 
ducting a, nation-wide campaign during the next hundred 
vcars in behalf of wild life protection. Efforts will be 
made to stop the sale of wild game, promote laws to 

prevent unnaturalized aliens from owning or using rifles 

and shotguns, stop all spring and late winter shooting, 

stop all killing of insectivorous birds for food and of 

all birds for millinery purposes, increase the number of 

game preserves, etc. It is proposed bo inaugurate next 
September a campaign in favor of creating game sanctu- 
aries in the national forests on a very comprehensive scale. 

The Tuberculous Tramp. — Under this designation Dr. 

A. J. Lanza describes in the Public Health Reports a 

.•lass of persons who have proved a serious burden to the 
health authorities in the southwestern United States. 
They are usually young men who wander from one place 
to another, working when they are physically able and 
ran get employment. In winter they seem to be m 
numerous in Arizona, while when the hot season comes 
on they depart by passing freight trains for Colorado 
or California. It is said that the extent of their wander- 
ings is often remarkable, as well as the length of time 
they can keep going before they are finally disable. I. 
'These tuberculous tramps.'" says Dr. Lanza, "are a 
pitiable and miserable class, always looking for some 
other place when- they feel sure they will impro 

Their wanderings, wiUiout benefiting themselves, spread 
tuberculous infection; and there seems at present to be 
n«» satisfactory way of dealing with the situation. 

The Remains of an Extinct Ground-sloth, found in a 
cave in Patagonia and presented by the director of the 
La Plata Museum to Mr. Roosevelt, have 1 n deposited 
by the latter in the American Museum of Natural 
History in New York. These remains possess extra- 
ordinary inter ! because the surroundings in which 
they were found seem to prove that the animal was 
living only a few centuries ago, ami was not only contem- 
porary with primitive man but was to some extent domes- 

ieated by him. PreNiou^ly to this discovery it had 

been believed that all the great ground-sloths of South 
Ameriea, of which many f- il remains ha\ been found, 

became extind thousands of years ago. The remains 
recently found were in a dry cave, in company with tools 
or weapons of stone and bone, together with bundles of 
grass spread as though intended for fodder. There were 
other indications that the animals had been stabled or 

imprisoned in the cave and fed by their captors. 

Radium Emanation in the Atmosphere. One of th. 
most elaborate investigations of the relation between 

the amount of radium emanation in the atmosphere and 

weather conditions is that recently carried out by 
Messrs. •!. K. Wright and (). F. Smith at Manila, the 
observations extending over a period of about 13 months. 
The effect of weather conditions upon the raleat which 
radium emanation is exhaled from the -round and the 
relation of the rate of exhalation to the radioactivity <>f 
soil gas at different depths \\< also investigate.!. 
Rainfall and wind movement seem to be the principal 
meteorological controls, the amount of emanation in the 
air being greatest when these factors are at a minimum, 
and rrsa. A decided diurnal variation is found to 

exist, the emanation content being considerably greater 
by night than by day. The rate at which radium eman- 
ation is exhaled from the surface of the ground shows a 
decided decrease after periods of heavy rain. 

The Volcanoes of the Lesser Antilles. — Dr. Edmund 

Otis llovey of tin- American Museum of Natural 
History has recently returned to New York after com- 
pleting the first expedition undertaken with the aid of 

the Heilprin Exploration Fund, established last year in 

memory of Angelo Heilprin. In view of the late Pro- 
fessor Ileilprin's well-known work in connection with 
the eruption of Mt. I' . it was especially appropriaf 
that the first work under the fund should have been an 
examination of the active volcanoes of the Lesser 
Antilles. Dr. Hovey visited (luadeloupe, Martini pie. 

and St. Vincent. In the Am* can Museum J&urnal he 

reports the present condition of the famous volcano. 
in those islands. From the cone of Mt. IVIe considerable 
steam is still issuing, though much less in \olume and 
lower in temperature than at the time of Dr. llovey's 

last previous visit in 1 < .M)S. The activity of the volcano 

has steadily diminished since the eruptions of L902 03, 
and apparently there is no present danger of recrudes- 
cence. On the windward side of the volcano new v. ita- 
lion has fully established itself, and even the forest is 
being renewed. The famous spine, or obelisk, which 

one- rose more than ti00 feet above I he cue, disappeared 

nearly ten years ago. On the site of the ruined city of 
St« Pierre there are 30 new buildings and 200 people. 



o9 



Inventions 



An Unbreakable Watch Crystal.— Patent No. 1,133,780 

to Bliss C. Amos of Waltham, Mass., describes a watch 

crystal of celluloid or other equivalent elastic trans- 
parent unbreakable material which in practice is sprung 

into an undercut groove or rabbet in the wateh bezel, 

reducing the initial OOSt to the manufacturer and avoiding 
the cost of replacing broken glass crystals by the user. 

Dyeing Device for Pile Fabrics.— J. A. Boyajean of 

New York city in patent, No. 1, 141,52*2 shows a liquid 

coloring implement which is specially designed for 
applying dyestufTs to pile fabrics and includes a pencil- 
like construction having a suitable supply connection 
with a source of dye supply and a tapered point which 
operates upon a valve to release the dyeing liquid. 

An Easily Opened Envelope.— Few inventions have 
been more persistently re-invented than the provision 

near the end of an envelope of a series of perforations to 

facilitate the opening of the envelope by tearing off its 

end along the perforations. Raymond A. Merrill of New 
Vork city has in patent No. 1,142,349 modified this 
by providing an opening in the strip separated by the 
perforations and merging into them so it can be easily 

seen whether the contents of the envelope cross the 

tearing line or not. 

Valuable Invention in Traversed Fields.— Many times 
important and valuable inventions are made in fields 
that seem to be well supplied. Take for instance so well 
known an object as the cartons in which many of the 
proprietary foods and other merchandise are marketed 
to-day. if one could devise a carton better structurally, 
more effectually sealed against moisture or other atmos- 
pheric conditions, of a distinctive shape, or as equally 
satisfactory in important respects and cheaper than the 
cartons now used, he would find a demand almost beyond 

imagination. 

Testing at Bureau of Standards. — There has been a 
noteworthy activity in testing work at the Bureau of 
Standards recently, including hundreds of hydrometers, 
thermometers, and many tests of paper both for the 
Government and private parties, th.- samples of paper 
for private parties being more than ten per cent of the 
tests for the Government Printing Office and other 
Government offices. The Bureau is being utilized more 
and more by private companies seeking impartial, scien- 
tifically conducted tests of all kinds of materials and 
products. 

Picture Hanger. — An all-metal extensible picture 
hanger is now in use which serves instead of the usual 
cord. To a ring which serves to suspend the hanger 
from an upper nail, are attached two decorative tubes 
of gilded copper containing telescoping rods at the 
lower vw\^. Such rods are curved into hooks at the bot- 
tom so as to be attached to eyelet screws in the back <f 
the picture. This gi\ a good means of adjusting the 
height of the picture by the sliding of the rods in the 
tubes, and they are fastened by set Bcrews. The present 
device gives a more decorative effect than the usual cords 
and'.unlike these it is not subject to deterioration. 

Reducing the Visibility of a Uniform. — For the purpose 

of rendering a uniform, as the patentee describes it. 

"less easy visible," Albert S. Cox of (irantwood, New- 
Jersey, has patented. No. 1,139,642, a military uniform 
or the like which has pronounced irregular alternating 
patches of contrasting light and dark colors with wavy 
outlines. Some of the darker patches are outlined in a 
still darker color, and smaller spots of contrasting color 
break up the color effect of some of the patch. so that 
the effect of uncertain light and shade is produced to 
cause the garment to mingle in a measure with the 

background. 

The National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics. — 
President Wilson has approved the regulations formu- 
lated for the control of the advisory aeronautical com- 
mittee, which include definite restrictions relative to 
invention. Pursuant to these the committee will not be 

able to encourage invention to the extent of supplying 

funds for the development, experimentally or otherwise, 
of inventions, although the committee will be able to 
carry on work along inventive lines for those who pa\ 
the actual expense incurred in so doing ami this may prow 

beneficial to aeronautical inventors because of the ad- 
vantage resulting from successful experiments under the 

direction of a committee national in character. 

Actual Trademark Use Not Necessary to Injury. — 

In Electro Steel Company v. Lindenberg Steel Company, 

the Court of Appeals of the District of Columbia, in 
sustaining the cancelation of the trademark registration 

by the Commissioner of Patents, has held that while it 

is quite true to have a right to cancel or oppose the 
registration of a trademark is dependent upon a showing 
of interest, it is not essential in all cases, however, that 
there should have been a strictly trademark use of the 
words by complainant, since injury to its business might 
be otherwise shown. In this case the Lindenberg Steel 
Company used the word "Electro* 1 as the name uf the 
steel it was selling arid also in its advertisements and 
letters. The pn>«>|' shows that this company sells electric 
steel as eleetro steel and so represents it to purchasers 

through its selling agents, and buyers buy it as such, 






40 



SCIENTIFICAMERICAN 



July 10, 1015 



At the Panama-California Exposition at San Diego 

Beautiful Architectural Effects That Harmonize With Their Picturesque Settings 



WHEN the Panama-California Exposition at San 
Diego, the first all-year exposition in history, was 
being planned, it was proposed to build it in the lower end 
of the 1,400-acre Balboa Park, almost in thecenter of the 

city of San Diego, because the site was easily accessible, 
the upper end of the park being cut by a deep canyon 
from which diverged other canyons, the slopes of which 
wen- too precipitous to allow an easy approach. When 
Frank P. Allen, Jr., who had been Director of Works 
at the Seattle Fair, came to San Diego, and was en- 
gaged as Director of Works for the Panama-California 
Exposition, after a survey of the park, the only large 
acreage available for exposition work, he urged that 
the plans be entirely abandoned and the city of Old 
Spain erected at the upper end. 

"How about the canyon?" he was asked. "Bridge it," 
responded Allen. And so. against the advice of other 
engineers who said the cost would be far too great. 
Allen went ahead with his plans and threw across the 
Canyon Cahrillo the grand Puente Cabrillo, a great 
Structure 1,010 feet long and 135 feet high at the 
deepest point. 

There is an unpleasant recollection of the approach 
to various other expositions, chiefly over railroad tracks 



wonderful coat of COlor. The reason for the scrubby 
growth which hitherto had prevailed was climate. For 
months of every year there is not a drop of rainfall in 
San DiegO. During that period the soil naturally is 
baked hard, and after centuries of such conditions the 

soil of Balboa Park had become hardpan, impervious 

to the roots of any except desert plants. Every foot of 
soil, therefore, was dynamited, and then plowed and 
harrowed and fertilized, and when the plant life was 
finally set out, it was only the preliminary to incessant 
irrigation and cultivation. A magic wand has been 
waved over the land, and the canyon is now a burst of 
bloom. 

One approaches the Puente through a groat grove of 
palms and peppers. Down along the canyon slopes are 
groves of Italian and Monterey cypress, with patches 

of eucalyptus and acacia, the triumphant u'<>id of the 

California poppy, and the great splashes of crimson, 
purple and white of other growths. In front of each 
building along the Prado stretches a double row of 
black acacia set in verdant Lawns. Over the cool 
arcades which line 101 Prado is a thick growth of 
vine, sometimes the brick-red bongainvillea. sometimes 
the gorgeous purple, ami sometimes rose or clematis 



In the same way many of the exhibits are of perma- 
nent nature, notably the enormously valuable scientific 

exhibit contributed by the United States National Mu- 
seum and other scientific bodies, the result of several 
years of exploration in Central and South America con- 
ducted in behalf of the exposition, as well as decades 

of research in anthropology in other sections of the 
world. 

The first all-year exposition in history is a triumph 
in many ways, not the least of which is its feat of 
going on a paying basis in the second month of opera- 
tion. This is a record in world's fair history. It is. 
most of all, an architectural triumph. 

More Room for the Patent Office 

HP HE architect has completed plans and bids were 
*■ opened on June 13th, 1915, for the m^v Interior 
Department Building which is to be completed within 
eighteen months from the award of contract and is to 
be pushed to an early completion since the structure is 
to be of brick and will present no engineering diffi- 
culties. 

The extensive Improvements which are now being 
made and have been under way for the last two years 







Looking toward the sea from the Spanish balcony. 



The exquisite California Building, 



and through unsightly sections of the city. At San 

Diego the situation is different. The park is surrounded 

by the best section of the residential neighborhood, and 

the Puente Cabrillo itself is the most Inspiring ap- 
proach which ever lent dignity to any world's fair. The 
bridge itself is made up of seven cantilever units, and 
into its composition went something like (500 tons of 
steel and 10,000 barrels of cement. The arches are of 
the round Spanish type found in the cloisters and 
arcades of Spanish buildings and lend a suggestion of 
the harmony which prevails throughout the Spanish 
city which San Diego has built. 

When the construction work was started the Canyon 
Cabrillo, like the other canyons, and like the mesa 
itself, was covered with a sparse growth of sage and 
chaparral and a little cacti, the whole foliage becom 
Ing a dreary brown during the dry season of each year. 
In three years the entire park was changed. Not only 

- 

was the mesa covered with rarely beautiful buildings 
such as are found in the cities of Old or New Spain — 

the cathedral, the missions, the palaces and the coun- 
try residences — but also the entire ground was given a 



or bignonia. In the gardens and patios are other 
floral wonders, something like 1,200 varieties in all. and 
millions of individual specimens. The effect of this 
floral cover is to create exactly the illusion for which 
the builders sought; — the effect of a city which had been 
built for centuries, from the times of the padres or t la- 
st ill mistier days of the conquistadores whose first 
sight of the Pacific coast; was tin 1 country which is now 
San Diego. 

Not only do the buildings look as though they had 
stood for centuries, but also they look as though they 
were destined to stand for centuries more: and this is 

true of several of the buildings, for, like the Puente 

Cabrillo, the California building, the Fine Arts build- 
ing, the great organ pavilion — the largest outdoor organ 
in the world — the Botanical building, and the quaint 
mission structure erected by the State of New Mexico, 
all are of steel and concrete. The others are of staff 
and plaster, but being placed on metal lath, in a coun- 
try so blessed by climate in that it is practically free 
from frosts and gales, even those should last for twenty 
or thirty years. 



in the Interior Department occupied by the Patent Of- 
fice have cost over $100,000 and include new plumbing 

installation, new electric wiring directed particularly to 

better lighting and to fire safely, an automatic sprinkler 
system, new floors, and what is practically a new sky- 
light. 

In addition, an architect has been especially employ i*d 
and is directing his attention to the betterment of the 

Patent Office and Old Land Office Building, occupying 

the square directly south of the Patent Office. When 

the new Interior Department Building is completed the 

entire Interior Department Building, now occupied in 
large part by the Patent Office, as well as a large por- 
tion of the Old Land Office Building, will be occupied 
by the Patent Office, thus greatly increasing its space. 

In the carrying out of repairs in the present Interior 
Department Building the Patent Office has been partic- 
ularly fortunate because Mr. E. ,1. Ay res. present Chief 
Clerk of (he Interior Department, who has supervision 
Of repair work, is a former attache of the Patent Office 
and naturally retains a strong interest in Patent Office 
matters as well as an appreciation of its needs. 



July 10. 1915 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN 



41 






r 










i 



Aerial Loops at Night 

By J. Cecil Alter 

iHE accompanying photographs show the coarse of 
an illuminated night flight made at the Panama- 



Graceful bridge across the Canyon Cabrillo. 

Marina, a narrow mass sward outlined for Mr. Smith 

by street lights. 



A 




Fig. 1. — Climbing in a broad spiral. 

Pacific International Exposition in a biplane by •Art" 
Smith, a 21-year-old aviator of Fort Wayne. in<l. Dur- 
ing the first part of the ten-minute trip a iv<1 torch was 

aflame from each side of the lower plane, and the 

double lines of light show clearly in the larger photo- 
graph. Mr. Smith turned on the white 

light glare of firework pieces near 

the top of Fig. 1 and soon sped <>1T 

the film to the right (east). Fig. 2 

was exposed quickly and in a mo- 
ment the biplane appealed, moving 
to the left, (west) at the upper 
right-hand corner of the view tinder. 
The splash lights or comet tails 

were in action, and the sputtering 

rays show on the path like hairs, 

flowing with the biplane. 

The first variation of the spiral 
climb was at an altitude of about 

2,500 feet, where the dip was made; 

then came a "roll-over" to the 
aviator's right, then a drop, finish- 
ing in another roll-up, and a loop, 
with the lower planes toward the 
camera, thus showing both his white 

lights, plainly and unobstructed. 
Then followed another loop, which, 
in the camera map, looks like the 

lower part of the figure "5." Then 

follows ji series of vertical and 
horizontal loops and dips. This 
same series of movements is shown 
in Fig. .'{, photographed from an- 
other point of view. Just after the 
return toward the alighting place 
the aviator's lights went out. The 

landing was made in safety on La 



The Current Supplement 

SUGGESTIVE article in the current issue of th 

Scientific American Supplement, No. 2002, tor 

.Inly 10th, 1915, is that which describes how effectively 
the Dominion of Canada is bringing her resources and 

attractions befl the public bj the beautiful and elabo- 
rate panoramic Illusions at the Pan pacific Exposition. 

Resides being attractive and instructive to the public, 
it is an impressive < i in pie of the intense and effective 

publicity that has attracted so many settlers to the 

Canadian Northwest. This article is profusely illus- 
trated. A valuable article <>n the Velocit.v <>f Hertzian 
Waves gives much interesting Information on the meth- 
ods used to determine the difference in longitude be- 
tween Washin n and Paris and the apparatus em- 
ployed. The concluding article of the series describing 

the Manufacture of Shrapnel Shells tells how the big 
brass cartridge es, such as are used for all kinds of 
field gun ammunition, arc made. Where the Mathe- 
matician Could Aid the Astronomer is a plea for closer 
co-operation between dil rent branches of science and 
discusses some astronomical problems. Problems of 
Geographic Influence considers the causes of differen- 
tiation of the white race. There is a concise descrip- 



tion of the construction and use of the Instruments for 
determining distances on battlefields, "range-finders.** 

illustrated by excellent diagrams and s rches. An- 
other timely article describes the instruments used on 
aeroplanes to assist in their navigation, such as air 





Fig. 2. — Tracing the figure "5" in the sky. 

speed, level and revolution Indicators, compasses and 
gages. The lectures on Photo-Electricity by Prof. 

Fleming are concluded; also the paper on the Manu- 
facture of Condensed Milk. Another practical article 
in this issue is one on Modern Substitutes for Butter, 

which tells about the manufacture 

of oleomargarine and the prepara- 
tion of other materials now wide! 
used instead of butter. It throws a 

different light upon these substances 

from that in which they are gen- 
erally viewed. Other valuable arti- 
cles tell of the mobilization of raw 
war materials by Germany; how 

shrapnel bullets are made; fine 

measuring tools \'<>v machinists: 

how to mount small animals; an ex- 
planation of typhus i\'\wv. and other 

general information. 



T 



Fig. 3, 



Double lines of fire traced by two torches; the sputtering light pro 

duced by fireworks. 



Philippine Asphalt 

1110 enormous deposit of asphalt 

of Leyte Province, in the Philip- 
pines, is now to be worked for th' 
eastern market by a local company. 
This almost inexhaustible deposit 
lies so near the Shore line at Tac- 
loban that ships can anchor and 
take on cargoes of asphalt from 
lighters loaded at the mines with 
practically no overland transporta- 
tion. There is a large and growing 
demand in the islands for paving 
asphalt and all the cities of the Par 
East are now in a position to offer 

a market. 






42 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN 



July LO, 1016 



The Strategic Moves of the War 



By Our Mililnry Expert— June 30th, 1915 



r^OR another week the Teuton hammer in the east 
J has been delivering hard and well directed blows 
against the Russians, while the Teuton anvil in the 
west has been able to withstand the repeated onslaughts 
of the English and French. Lemberg, the capital of 
Galicia, is once more ruled by its own people, and the 
Russians have fallen back to the eastward for what 
will probably be their last determined stand on the 
Austrian side of their frontier. Two months ago the 
vast Russian army, that: had marched triumphantly 
through Galicia, was in full possession of the passes 
through the Carpathian Mountains, and apparently 
ready to continue its victorious advance into the fertile 
plains of Hungary. The dual monarchy was down- 
hearted and the extremely unfavorable situation which 
confronted the Teutons was made much more desper- 
ate by the entrance of Italy into the conflict against 
them. It was the most trying period of the war for 
the Austro-Germans. 

Then came the Teuton drive from Cracow against 
the flank and rear of the Russian line in the Carpath- 
ians, a master strategic stroke, worthy of a great army 
and a great, leader, which for nearly two months has 
steadily pushed the Russians back from one position 
to another until all Galicia, except a strip about fifty 
miles wide in the northeastern portion, has been re- 
covered. The hopes of the Teutons have mounted high, 
and as they have risen great discourage- 
ment must have taken possession not only 
of the Russian army and people, but all 
the allied nations as well. The military 
prestige of the Germans has risen in the 
camps of foes as well as of friends, and 
the morale of the Allies has suffered in 
proportion. These are psychological fac- 
tors in war that have a far-reaching and 
tremendous force. Their full value can- 
not be measured, but until the balance of 
prestige has been restored by a decisive 
victory by the Allies, the superior pres- 
tige of the Germans will be worth many 
battalions on every great battlefield. This 
is one of the great results the German has 
gained by his victorious eastern campaign. 
Material advantages have been obtained 
as well. A large friendly population that 
had been lost is once more available for 
industrial and military purposes. The 
agricultural area of Hungary has been 
materially increased before it was too late 
to make use of it for this year's crops, 
and the rich mining and oil regions of 
Galicia have been recovered for much 
needed German supply. 

And yet the German victory has not 
been decisive. In recovering Galicia they 
have but won back their own count ry 
wrested from them in a previous cam 
paign, and all Galicia has not yet been recovered. They 
have won many battles, but so also did the Russians 
when they made their victorious advance a few months 
ago to the southern slopes of the Carpathians. Yet the 
Russians were not able to prevent the German drive 
from Cracow, and the Germans now. in their turn, may 
not be able to prevent a similar counter stroke by the 
Russians. The truth is the present German campaign 
is little or no more decisive than the Russian campaign 
of some months ago. The Russians failed in their 
efforts to deliver the knock-out blow toward Cracow 
that would have split the Teuton army and separated 
the Austiians from their German allies, and to date 
the Germans have failed in each of their efforts to 
drive home a wedge that would split the Russian army. 

Nothing less than the destruction or complete dis- 
persion of the Russian army can give the Germans a 
truly decisive victory the effects of which might endure 
to the end of the war, and the masterful way in which 
the retreat of that army has been conducted for nearly 
two months indicates that its leader will go to the ex- 
treme of giving up not only all of Galicia but any 
amount of Russian territory as well, rather than allow 
his army to be broken and scattered. If we read cor- 
rectly the teachings of German strategy, it aims to 
destroy the Russian army and c( nsiders the occupation 
of Russian territory of importance mainly because this 
will contribute indirectly to the destruction of the 
Russian army or of the hostile army on the western or 
southern front. 

The Russians are past masters in the art of retreat- 
ing. Their campaign in Manchuria against the Japanese 
was one long retreat from the Yalu to Mukden, inter- 
spersed with many battles, in all of which they wen' 
defeated, yet they fought more valiantly and ferociously 



at their hist battle before Mukden than at any previous 

stand. They should be perfectly capable of repeating 

that performance in the present war, if Germany 
Chooses to follow and be swallowed up in the vastness 
of Russia, as did Napoleon in his disastrous Moscow 
campaign. 

The violence and magnificence of the campaign in the 
east has drawn our attention lately from the western 

front, yrt f,,r Germany it is still the all important 

battlefield on which the war can be most speedily de- 
cided. She turned away from this theater some months 
ago when dire necessity compelled her to go to the 
assistance of her ally to stem and turn back the tide of 
Russian invasion which threatened to overwhelm Aus- 
tria. In strict accord with the sound principles of 
strategy, she adopted no half measures in this extrem- 
ity, but stripped her western line to the bare necessities 
of defensive warfare and concentrated every available 
man for the speediest possible accomplishment of the 
task she was to undertake in the eastern theater. The 
really decisive campaign, the one that may end the war 
—the capture of Paris and the Channel ports and the 
destruction of the French army -has not been aban- 
doned, and the German General Staff must be very im- 
patient to resume it. The summer is advancing and 
the movement of the German army from the Russian 
to the French front cannot be delayed indelinitelv if 







THE HEAVY LINE SHOW THE APPROXIMATE POSITION Of THE BATTLE LINE NEAR THE. RUSSIAN FRONTIER JUNE 30* 
mmt •^•— • — =r FRONTIER ■» | -RAILROADS ■■^■■■■■B = BATTLE LIME 



The approximate position (shown by heavy line) of the battle line near the 

Russian frontier, June 30th. 



the western campaign is to be completed before winter 
sets in. Yet it would be folly to abandon the eastern 
front before the Russian army is so exhausted and de- 
moralized as to be incapable of a far-reaching invasion 
of Austria and Germany during the continuance of the 
western campaign. 

If this is the German task, it truly is a stupendous 
one, but the position of the long battle line on the 
Russian frontier appears to favor its execution. A 
glance at the map shows how the Russian line has 
been stretched more and more with each passing week. 
Only a few weeks ago it was well to the west of Prze- 
mysl; then it was pushed back to that fortress; a little 
later it. was pushed hack another fifty miles to Lem- 
berg; and now it is well to the east of that city, prob- 
ably along the Hug and Zlota Lipa rivers. Each of these 
moves to the rear has added to the strain on the 
stretched-oul battle line which, if the process is con- 
tinued indefinitely, must eventually readjust itself on 

a shorter line or break as would a rubber band. The 

Germans have so shaped the campaign as to force the 

Russians into a very disadvantageous position, which 
is rapidly becoming dangerous. From Kielce to Rawa 
Ruska. a distance of one hundred and fifty miles, the 
line runs almost east and west, beyond Kielce it runs 
to the northward, and beyond Rawa Ruska to the 
southeast. A powerful effort at Kielce or Rawa Ruska, 
or at some other point between the two places, if it 
should succeed, would effectually divide the Russian 

army and open the way for a decisive German victory 
and the renewal of the campaign against France. 

The news of the week ending June 30th has not been 

of a character that admits of even a probable specula- 
tion as to the next important move. The Russian army 
has revealed greater resisting and lighting power than 



was anticipated, and German progress to the east of 
Lemberg has not been as rapid as was expected. These 
facts suggest the probability that movements prepara- 
tory to a blow are being made behind the German line 
under cover of a show of force to the east of Lemberg 
and along the Dniester. If this should be true the 
next week may have in store for us a surprise equal 
to the first thrust of the drive from Cracow that began 
the campaign. This assumes that the Germans are in 

no great danger as yet from a Russian offensive move- 
ment, for it is not probable that the Russian army has 
yvt recovered its strength in men. guns, ammunition, 

and supplies sufficiently to make this possible. 

So far as mere surface indications go, the Germans 
appear to he continuing their attacks all along the two 
hundred and fifty miles of front from the junction of 
the San and Vistula rivers to the Russian left north of 
Czemowitz. The Russians have made a most defer 
mined stand along the Dniester portion of this front. 
Where the strong defensive line of the river has favored 
a stubborn defensive, apparently for the purpose of 
covering the orderly retreat of their forces farther north 
from Lemberg and Rawa Ruska to the line of the Bug 
and Zlota Lipa rivers. So long as the Germans wer 
confronted on their right by a strong undefeated Rus- 
sian force south of the Dniester they could not push 
their advance farther to the north indefinitely, and it 

was quite important that this force 
should he driven back to the north bank 
of the Dniester, which would thus he con- 
verted into a powerful protection for the 
German right flank. 

In the last days of the week under con- 
sideration, the battle that ragexl for some 
time on this flank was terminated tempor- 
arily in a partial success for the Germans 
who captured the town of Halicz on the 
Dniester at the mouth of the (Jnila Lipa 
and cleared the Russian army from an 
additional section of the south hank of the 
1 >niester. 

Should the Germans continue their 
attacks on this flank and to the 
north, which is more than probable, and 
should they meet with continued success, 
the tendency would be either to drive the 
Russians to the northeast, away from the 
Dniester, or else to the east beyond Tarno- 
pol and Rrody, still further stretching the 
much elongated line running to the east 
from Kielce. 

From whatever angle the probable Her- 
man intentions are considered it is difficult 
to see how the Russians can save the city 
of Warsaw unless they succeed in the near 
future in turning the tide of battle. Ger- 
man activity to the north of Warsaw has 
been attracting increasing attention, and 
if Is well to speculate on what it may mean. We 
must not forget that the splendid system of strategic 
railways built with so much forethought by Germany 
is one of her great advantages over the Russians, and 
the present situation is particularly favorable for mak- 
ing good use of the system. Stirring events elsewhere , 
have also withdrawn attention from German activities 
in the region of the Gulf of Riga, hut we may he sure 
that the foothold gained here — less than four hundred 
miles from Petrograd — is not without a purpose. 

The operations of the week on the French front were 
similiar to those of preceding weeks. The French offen- 
sive has increased in vigor; untold quantities of am- 
munition have been expended, and life has been sacri- 
ficed lavishly, but the German anvil has only beeiij 
dented. The sword that is to cleave it in twain is yet 
to be forged. Still the French have made gains, the 
accumulated value of which will grow in importance 
if the ground lost by the Germans is not recovered. The 
effect of the French victories is being felt more and 
more on the Russian front, giving heart to the Russians 
and making the Germans very impatient to reach a 
decisive conclusion of the eastern campaign. 

On the Italian front neither side made any material 
gain for the week unless we may consider the ability 
of the Austrians to stop the Italian advance, a gain 
from the Teuton viewpoint. Not only has the Austrian 
defense stiffened, hut the Italians have now reached 
positions of greater natural and artificial defensive 
strength which they probably cannot take without the 
concentration of large numbers and great loss of life. 
Their aim must be lo break down this first line of 
Austrian defense before a decision is reached in Russia. 
Everywhere the conditions compel Germany to hasten 
the completion of the Russian campaign. 



) 






i 






July 10, 1915 

QlatttBpttnbttit? 

[The editors are not responsible for statements made 
in the correspondence column. Anonymous communi- 
cations cannot be considered, but the names of corre- 
spondents will be withheld when so desired.] 

Combined Astronomical and Geographical Globe 



'i' 



To the Editor of the Scientific American: 

Noticing your article entitled "The Heavens on a 

Parasol" in your issue of May 22nd, I want to surest 
what seems to me a more practical system. It is to 
show the continents, countries, shore lines, etc. (which 
are so much distorted on our Mat maps) on concave and 
convex disks representing hemispheres or smaller por- 
tion of the earth's surface. These disks could be spun 

up or stamped out of thin sheet metal or molded in 
paper pulp or papier maehc. They would nest and take 
much less space and cost much less than a mounted 
globe of same diameter. The star clusters could be 
shown on the concave surfaces. Header. 

Pittsburgh, Pa. 

Motorboats to Attack Submarines 

To the Editor of the Scientific American : 

•lust as a suggestion from a "lay mechanic" and not 
a designated mechanical engineer, would it not be pos- 
sible to combat the submarine with a high-speed motor- 
boat, armed with one or two small caliber rifles, firing 
an explosive shell. 

The cheapness of cost of a 40-, 50-, or 60-foot motor- 
boat, built strong enough to stand the strain of the 
tiring of the gun, and the ease and quickness with 
which such a boat can be constructed, would, if this is 
possible, enable our own navy or that of the Allies to 
dispose of the present submarine terror. 

The idea of the motorboat is that its speed and its 
quick turning radius would enable it to dodge success- 
fully a torpedo aimed at it, while the explosive shell 
from the boat gun would so wound it as to prevent its 
diving, and make it an easy prey to larger craft. 

New York city. C. A. Peirce. 

The Crack of a Whip 

To the Editor of the Scientific American: 

I was reading the article in the issue of April 3rd 

instant. "Why a Whip (/racks." giving Prof. C. V. Boys's 

idea that the speed of the whip is that which produces 

the sound. I would like to submit the following: 

I had spent some little time thinking about this, when 

quite a while since I was in a half-illumined harness 
si ore where the merchant happened to be trying whips. 
( >ne particularly loud snap produced an electric spark 
at the end of the lash. All of a sudden the idea oc- 
curred to me that the snap was not made by the lash 
at all. but was produced by the action of the lash divid- 
ing the air and that it was the instantaneous concus- 
sion of the air that produced the snap and the electric 
spark was the friction caused by the division of the 
currents of air, the same as in a thunderstorm. Why 

not? Jessie M. Jones. 

Canton, Pa. 

The " Canals " of Mars 

'I'm the Editor <>f the Scientific American: 

- 

In your issue of May 8th, 1915, Prof. W. II. Pickering 
is quoted as remarking that the apparent movement of 
some of the so-called canals on Mars does not strengthen 
the theory of irrigating ditches. It seems to me that 
the reverse is correct. 

I believe it. is supposed that the visible marks are the 
vegetation produced by irrigation and not the canals 
themselves. If there were not enough water available to 
fill all of the canals at the same time, the water would, 
of course, be turned in part, which would then become 
visible from the growth of vegetation. After a quick 
growing crop was produced the sluices in one canal 
would be closed and those in a nearby ditch opened. 
This would permit the vegetation along the second canal 
to be seen, while the first would disappear from the 
regular procedure of (he Martian harvest operations, 
and the canal first seen would apparently have moved. 

Vicksburg, Miss. Philip Crutch er. 

An Opinion of the Scientific American From an 

Old Reader 

To the Editor of the Scientific American: 

Finding that you invite contributions from old read- 
ers of the Scientific American in connection with your 
seventieth anniversary, I would remark that I have 
been a reader of your journal with a degree of regu- 
larity for the past forty years, and that, in all this time 
much of the material appearing in its columns has been 
read and absorbed by myself with avidity. 

I have a distinct recollection of the time when the 

first McCormick reaping machine was introduced and 
operated in this part of the country. The inventor 
being a native-born Virginian, the shop where he 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN 

worked out the design for his first reaping machine in 

1831 was yet standing at Auburn, Va., when visited by 
the writer twelve years ago. In consulting my tiles of 
Scientific American I find on page 71 of your fiftieth 
anniversary number, a cut representing this machine as 
it was operated at Steele's Tavern. Va. This anniver- 
sary number, bearing date of July 25th. 1896, contains 
the prize article. "The Progress of Invention During the 
Past Fifty Years," by Edward W. P.yrn. M.A.. of Wash- 
ington, I). C. At this time, perhaps, modesty would not 
forbid me the statement that, I was one of the unsuc- 
cessful contestants for that prize. 

The testimony as to the worth expressed editorially, 
and The splendid tribute offered by the committee on 
award to all contestants, gave ample recognition as to 
merit in each case; and it may not be thought presump- 
tuous in me to add that, the tiles of your journal have 
served me as a rich and most resourceful fountain of 
knowledge to draw from in the preparation of the thesis 
that gave the writer his M. A. degree in college. 

Dale Enterprise, Va. J. P. Heatwole. 

A Plan for Methodical Increase of the Navy 

To the Editor of the Scientific American: 

Your correspondent begs to present briefly a sugges- 
tion for organized naval construction, with a view t<> 
remedying the patent defects in our naval arm. 

It would seem valuable to organize the fleet on a per- 
manent system, somewhat parallel to that of the 
Army. i. e., in units composed of elements in fixed pro- 
portion. 

To this end I suggest the squadron as the unit to be 
composed approximately as follows: Four battleships, 
one battle-cruiser, four light, cruisers, twenty destroyers, 
and auxiliaries necessary to render the unit indepen- 
dent. This unit would be commanded by a rear-admiral. 

Two squadrons form a division under the flag of a vice- 
admiral. Two or more divisions form a fleet under an 
admiral's flag. 

I merely suggest the latter superior formations l 
indicate the necessary creation of superior flag officers; 
obviously tactical consideration might demand a depar- 
ture from the established organization. 

Each squadron may be considered to require 10,000 
men. 

Given our present, rate of new construction — two 
battleships yearly — under the suggested system Con- 
gress would appropriate biennially for an additional 

squadron. 

This automatically provides four battleships, one bat- 
tle-cruiser, four light cruisers, twenty destroyers, the 

required auxiliaries and a maximum Increase in the 
enlisted personnel of 10,000 men. together with the ad- 
mission to the naval academy of the necessary othcers. 

1 have noted the increase in enlisted personnel at a 
ma.riniirm of 10,000 men; it is considered to provide for 
the manning of the projected ships, obviously the 
squadron increase may be determined at a lower figure, 
due to laying up of ships in reserve and the striking 
out of obsolete vessels, tending to release for new ser- 
vice a proportion of the men already enlisted. 

This system, similar in effect to existing continental 
naval practice, should secure homogeneous units — al- 
ways invaluable tactically — and would remove from lay 
interference (however well intentioned) the question of 
composition of the fleet, presumed undei this disposi- 
tion to be determined by law from recommendations of 
the professional naval boards. 

Flexibility as to increase or decrease in rate of con- 
struction is secured by variation in the interval of 
appropriation. This is so apparent as to need no 
demonstration. Wm. Bergen Cha leant. 

Building Bureau, Carnegie Institute of Technology. 
Pittsburgh, Pa. 

A Plan for Increasing Our Military Strength 

To the Editor of the Scientific American : 

Military preparedness or mi preparedness by the 
United States has now become a vexed and burning 
question. Measures and resolutions of various kind 
and character bearing upon this important issue have 
been discussed by the national law-making body; news- 
paper and magazine editorials, persona! Comment and 
criticism, materially aided by the expressions of the 
Scientific American, are clearly indicative of the at- 
tention demanded by the military necessities of the 
nation, and it is devoutly to he wished that from out 
the olla podrida of pending discussion and threatened 
legislation some capable, satisfactory and efficient 
method of military improvement may be evolved and 
crystallized into action. Such a consummation would 
permanently remove the suspicion, now all too prev- 
alent, that, as a nation, we are incapable of military 

offense or defense. 

Granting the honesty of purpose, the sincerity of in- 
tention of the advocates of "peace at any price." it 
ijiiis! be admitted that the advice of George Washington 
is as potent to-day as when it was given. Those who 

advocate peace with a concurring lax military system 



43 



are, very evidently, swayed by mere sentiment rather 
than by the reason of the subject. < >ne year ago the 
world was at peace, save a few incipient revolutions in 
the Latin-American republics. One year ago no nation 
dreamed of war. Now the blood-stained, battle-scarred 
nations of Europe give solemn warning. Is not eternal 
vigilance still the price of liberty? We all deprecate 
wars of aggression or of conquest, but wars in defense 
of the home, wars in defense of liberty and right, carry 
with them an air of sanctity. It was only through war 
that, our forebears wrested political liberty from the 
reluctant hands of tyrants. It was only through war 
that, the American nation was enabled to maintain its 
political unity. If these rich blessings are to be per- 
petuated and enjoyed, then we must be prepared to de- 
fend and protect them against all the nations of earth. 
The sword is just as sacred a weapon in the hands of 
the American citizen of to-day as it was in the hands 
of his revolutionary forefathers, or of those heroic 
souls who fought through our civil war until human 
fortitude con Id no longer go. 

President Wilson, in one of his messages to Congress, 
enlarged upon our means of national defense through 
the medium of what, he termed the "citizen soldiery": 
but. we have no "citizen soldiery" in a literary sense, for 
a mob is not an army. An army must he made up of 
trained soldiers and that training cannot be accom- 
plished in a day. It has been well said that "a soldier 
on the firing line who does not know how to shoot 
makes better material for a coffin than he does for a 
fighter." The real difference between peace and war 
lies in our condition of preparedness or the lack of it. 
What the nation most needs is a self -consciousness of 
our ability to protect ourselves from war or against 
war. Properly trained men and the necessary machin- 
ery are the essentials to secure that self-consciousness. 
To wait until an armed foe is at our very gates and 
then place reliance upon a "citizen soldiery" is both 
dangerous and suicidal. It would mean the needless 
sacrifice of thousands of men. Dependence upon a "citi- 
zen soldiery" untrained and unskilled in the great game 
of war would necessitate a long detention in concentra- 
tion camps, the enemy, meanwhile, gathering in force. 

I would suggest the following plan for increasing our 
military strength : 

Convert the National Guard, by Act of Congress, into 

a purely national organization and for federal purposes 

only. 

Relieve the National Guard, by Act of Congress, from 
the necessity of performing police functions in behalf 
of the States, except under Federal authority and 
control. 

Place the enlisted and commissioned personnel of the 
National Guard under pay proportionate to the duties 
required of them and according to grade. 

Amend the Federal military law so as to make the 
National Guard in reality the first army reserve, sub- 
ject to the orders of the President and Secretary of 
War at all times and in all places. 

Remove the legal restrictions against, the use of th 
National Guard in active service on foreign soil. 

Allow the National Guard to elect its own company, 
battalion and regimental officers from a list of duly 
qualified candidates, brigade and division officers to be 
of the Regular Army. 

Demand the same duties, proportionately, and respon- 
sibilities of both othcers and men in the National Guard 
as are now demanded of officers and men in the Reg- 
ular Army. 

Place the National Guard under the provisions of the 
Army Regulations concerning military offenses. 

Provide an abundance of Regular Army officers as 
instructors and supervisors. 

Keep the National Guard well armed, equipped and 
uniformed, and require general efficiency in their par- 
ticular branch of the service. 

Provide for battalion, regimental, brigade and divi- 
sion maneuvers with regular frequency for purposes of 
general instruction in all tactical as well as adminis- 
trative units. 

With Federal legislation of the character suggested 
thousands of available young men would take advan- 
tage of the opportunity to acquire a military education 
and a wholesome regeneration of the National Guard in 
all the States of the Union would speedily follow. The 
utilization of the Regular Army officers for instruction 
purposes would create a feeling of kinship between the 
two organizations and existing antagonisms would dis- 
appear. This trained reserve could be mobilized in any 
emergency and upon exceedingly short notice. The re- 
public could then rest secure in the knowledge of being 
prepared should it be confronted with war. 

Happily, I am not. indissolubly wedded to the above 
plan, and can be readily divorced therefrom provided a 
better plan can be suggested. The National Guard of- 
fers a nucleus for that trained reserve now so univer- 
sally insisted upon and the training could be given 
without drawing the individuals from industrial pur- 
suits. John R. Chableb worth. 

Captain Second Infantry, N.G.C. 






i 







44 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN 

Our First Naval Dirigible 

An American-built Airship Possessing Novel Features of Control and of Anchorage 

By C. Dienstbach 



July 10, 1915 



T 




HAT the contract for the first United States naval 
dirigible has been awarded to the same constructor 
who seven years ago supplied the first United States 
army dirigible, Capt T. S. Baldwin, co-operating with 

the Connecticut Aircraft Company, is well in keeping 
with the policy of developing home resou rces, which 
furnished the keynote of the Navy Department's recent 
dirigible competition. Experience has proved nowhere 
a more valuable asset than in dirigible development, 
especially if the problem involves enlisting all sorts of 
"odds and ends" of established industries to form a 
new. a\id not only passing expert judgment, upon ropes, 
fabrics, woods, wires and what not concerning fitness 
for dirigible construction, but also knowing where such 
precious "by-products" of current, commerce may be 
procured. The accepted design bears proof that the 
winner of the competition has also not only taken ad- 
vantage of seven years of astounding progress in Eu- 
rope, but has also availed 
himself of that most effi- 
cient help to inventors, 
the modern aerodynamic 
laboratory, which, thank 
goodness, is no longer 
missing on this side of the 
ocean. Self-evidently the 
shape of the hull is thus a 
striking improvement on 
the Army dirigible of 190S. 
The exacting conditions of 
the naval authorities have, 
furthermore, in this case 
happily resulted in refine- 
ment of design rather than 
(as might generally have 
been feared from an ap- 
proach to the British type) 
the reverse. The Navy's 
demand that the car could 
float has eventually turned 
Capt. Baldwin's original 
Renard-Santos Dumont- 
Astra type into an im- 
proved Austrian Korting 
type, for the frame is now 
made quadrangular only 
one third of its length, and 
this part is fashioned into 
an inclosed boat. The 
other two thirds are, as in 
the "Korting" (and in the 
best biplane practice) 
made of only a minimum 
number of steel tubing- 
struts which could be ar- 
ranged at a sharp angle 
with the path of flight, and 
forming triangles, dispense 
with bracing wires. Conse- 
quently their head resist- 
ance compared to the reg- 
ular forest of number- 
less struts and wire braces 
at right angle to the path 

of flight in an old-fashioned Santos Dumont-Asiia frame 
has been immensely reduced, while that of the inclosed 
boat hardly counts. A certain relative increase in 
weight is thus more than offset. 

It may not yet be as generally known as should be 
expected, at this date, that, laboratory tests show many 
small parts together offer so much more grip to the 
wind than few larger ones, that the whole immense 
bulk of a balloon, about whose "hopeless unwieldiness" 
some uninformed people still continue to harp, offers only 
one third as much resistance against propulsion as the 
infinitely smaller looking car and suspension. There 
are many interesting, up-to-date details in the new 
Baldwin design, such as the secure yet easily detach- 
able fastening of the suspension to the bag by wooden 
toggles which are slipped into pockets of a reinforced 
belt; maneuvering and safety valves at the bottom of 
the envelope: subdivision of the envelope into four com- 
partments communicating at their lowest part; two 
spherical ballonets attached with ropes to the ceiling 
and sewn to the floor of the envelope to keep the air 
from shifting. 

The car is hung rather close to the bag, further re- 
ducing suspension resistance. Two interesting leaves 
have been taken out of current, aeroplane practice (so 
far the more familiar one in America). One is mount- 
ing only one motor of 120 horse-power, driving two 



propellers by chain transmission in place of two of 
sixty, which recalls a favorite argument, of Orville 
Wright against multiple small motors. The other is 
combining two steering functions in one wheel — as in 
a boat, turning the wheel steers right or left, but as in 
an aeroplane pulling or pushing the wheel steers up or 
down. There are two sides to this question. The two 
separate helms for steering up and down in Zeppelins 
and Parsevals serve a very useful purpose when in 
badly disturbed air the helmsmen are often bathed in 
perspiration from the effort of keeping the ship in a 
reasonably steady course in either direction, and find it 
more than a boon that each is charged with only half 
the work. Yet. Kipling describes in his inspired aero- 
nautic novel, "With the Nightmail," how, facing the 
worst of a storm, the captain deliberately united all the 
controls under his own hands. 
Whenever not only stabilizing, but also quick ma- 




A 175-foot dirigible for the United States Navy. 



TOZ-GlC J 

Of 4«c •-'. s 




'A Or Cud or 

CffOiSJi.< B/ilDLt Or 

Af\ >ff CABL 






ONCffCTE 
ANCHORAGE 



mooring cable to the very nose of the envelope. This 

is beyond dispute the best point of attachment, which 

best coincides with the center of resistance in keeping 

the ship strictly head to the wind. But the difficulty 
arose of transmitting the jerky strains caused by 

irregular gusts evenly to the whole envelope. This is 
met by a system of suspension ropes toggled to a 
strongly reinforced belt that runs in a fairly wide 
circle around the nose of the gas bag. The crow's feet, 
of course, move and slip as freely in evenly distribut- 
ing the pull of many to fewer ropes as those of the 
main suspension. But these fewer radiating ropes are 
by no means, as might, be suspected, spliced into a com- 
mon mooring cable. Instead, they are attached to a 
yoke, which is in turn held to the mooring rope by a 
bridle. The ropes are not tied to the yoke, but run 
over a series of pulleys at either end, yielding to any 
individual jerking and always resisting collectively. 

The mooring cable, again, 
is not tied to the top of 
the mooring tower or 
aerial anchoring buoy, 
but it merely runs over a 
pulley (so mounted that 
its axis may turn in any 
direction) and then verti- 
cally down to an anchorage 
sunk below the ground in 
a block of concrete. 

Although this towe r, 
illustrated by the writer in 
1909 in At cC I lire's Maga- 
zine and now prescribed 
by the military authorities, 
is in itself a guard against 
the dirigible's being dashed 
against the ground by ver- 
tical gusts, protection has 
been made yet more com- 
plete by suspending heavy 
ballast bags on long ropes 

from the ship. Whenever 
— the dirigible is jerked 

down, their weight is imme- 
diately borne by the ground 
and an equal amount of 
gas buoyancy resists fur- 
ther vertical wind press- 
ure. (In the writer's illus- 
tration mentioned a heavy 
guide rope is shown, serv- 
ing the same purpose.) 

The principal dimen- 
sions of the new Baldwin 
dirigible are: Length, 175 
feet; greatest diameter, 35 
feet; displacement, 110,000 
cubic feet, which, most for- 
tunately, exceeds "Vedette" 
size. 



BAlLAST 
- : ACfM 



Storm-proof system of anchoring the dirigible. 



neuvering, is essential, as in keeping up the speed and 
obedience to the helm of the present type of aeroplane 
in dangerous air, or, for instance, in dodging attack 
with a war dirigible, combined vertical and horizontal 
steering is called for. Though a dirigible is compara- 
tively immune to the air conditions which, but for the 
pilot's intense watchfulness, would play havoc with an 
aeroplane, a combined helm might prove useful in diffi- 
cult landings or in hugging the ground, especially in 
misty weather. ("Parseval III," while availing itself 
of the frictional retardation of wind velocity next to 
the ground to make headway in a storm,, once barely 
missed running into a flock of cattle with its pon- 
derous car.) But, after providing such combined helms 
in duplicate, steering may be both co-operative or indi- 
vidual. With experience in keeping captive balloons 
for many weeks in service in the open without any 
shelter (an instance which the writer used in the 
American Aeronaut six years ago to show how unjustly 
dirigibles have been likened to soap bubbles), Capt. 
Baldwin has interested himself especially in the naval 
authorities' meritorious demand that the dirigible con- 
tracted for could weather a 50-mile gale at anchor in 
the open (a vital question in this country with its 
scarcity of sheds). He has worked out this problem 
more thoroughly than it was ever tackled before. The 
most important detail is his way of fastening the 



New Gas Lamp. — In- 
candescent mantle gas 

burners are now made as 
high as 1,000 to 5,000 candle-power, but hitherto it ap- 
peared impracticable to mount them at a great height 
above the ground upon poles, although a great advan- 
tage is thus secured from the well-known fact that a 
single large lamp gives better light than its equivalent 
in numerous small lamps. For public lighting such a 
lamp must be mounted at a high elevation, which pre- 
vents cleaning of the lamp and replacing of the mantle. 
The problem appears to be solved by a patented device 
now in successful use in some cities on the Continent. 
The lamp is mounted over twenty feet high, and can 
be let down for cleaning. The pole is of hollow steel tube 
of great strength, being curved over at the top in order 
to suspend the lamp, this being hung upon a cable which 
runs through the pole, and to a winch inside the pole 
base. The success of the device depends on the method 
of gas colliding between the lamp and its support. 
On top of the lamp is a cone which fits into a conical 
socket in the end of the pole, so as to make a gas-tight 
joint; and suitable means are used to make an auto 
matic connection, so that the gas lamp can now be low- 
ered and then re-mounted. A valve inside the pole base 
turns off the gas on lowering the lamp. The operation 
of raising and lowering resembles what is familiar for 
arc lamps. As to lighting the gas lamp, it can be done 
by a cerium friction tablet, or by a small pilot lamp 
which is constantly fed by a flexible metallic tube. 



July 10, 1915 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN 



45 




Displacement, 29,500 tons. Speed, 23 knots. Guns: Sixteen 13. 4-inch ; twenty-four 5. 5-inch. Torpedo Tubes, 6. 

The new French dreadnought "Tourville." 



The New French Battleship "Tourville'' 

The First Dreadnought to Carry Sixteen Guns in the Main Battery 



By M. K. Barnett 



MUCH interest has been aroused throughout the 
United States over the launch of the powerful bat- 
tleships "Pennsylvania" and "Arizona;" but the de- 
velopment of the battleship type is still progressing. 
Particulars have come to hand of the new French 29,500- 
ton battleships of the "Tourville" class, which include 
the "Duquesne," "Lyon," and "Lille." Out of five 
different sets of plans submitted to the French Minis- 
try of Marine by the Construction Bureau, the one 
selected was in appearance unique, but in armament an 
improved "Normandie." 

As will be seen in the plan, the funnels, conning 
tower, bridges, etc., are massed together amidships. 
The arrangement of gun positions is similar to that 
of the "Michigan," the first dreadnought 
to adopt that disposition of four turrets 
which is now universally recognized as 
being ideal, viz., two forward and two aft, 
the inner turrets raised so as to superfire 
over the extreme turrets. This disposi- 
tion in the case of the "Michigan," gives a 
fire of four guns ahead, four guns astern, 
and eight guns on either broadside. 

Since the "Michigan" w r as designed the 
development of gun mounting has intro- 
duced first the triple and now the quad- 
ruple turret, i. e., a turret which mounts 
four guns. The "Tourville" carries four 
of these, and hence she carries the enor- 
mous armament of sixteen heavy, armor- 
piercing guns of 13.4-inch caliber. 

When dreadnoughts first became gen- 
eral, the twin turret was universal. It 
was Italy, whose naval designers have for 
many years shown great originality and 
enterprise, who first mounted three 12- 
inch guns in one turret. This novelty was incorpor- 
ated in the 'Dante Alighieri" (laid down in 1909), 
which mounted twelve 12-inch guns in four turrets. 

As is noticeable in all innovations, this triple mounting 
met with a hail of criticism; but it vindicated its exist- 
ence, for it was soon adopted by Austria, and later by 
America and Russia, while France, together with 

Britain, Germany, and Japan, retained the double 

mounting. 

In 1913, France, without having adopted the triple 
turret, laid down the "Normandie," which mounted 
three quadruple turrets, another innovation. The best 
evidence as to its success is that the "Tourville," the 
first ship of later class, still uses the quadruple mount- 
ing, an extra turret in this class giving an immense pre- 
ponderance of gun power over the "Normandie." 

The principal arguments used against the triple and 



quadruple turrets are as follows: 1. The inclusion 
of more than two guns in a turret incurs crowding, 
which Is detrimental to accuracy of fire. 2. A shot 
jamming a turret may put three or four guns out of 
action: or in other words it is "Putting all your eggs 
into one basket." B. The great massing of weight en- 
gendered in this principle necessarily brings more stress 
on the ship than a more extended disposition. 

While in answer, the following arguments may be 
quoted: 1. The smaller the number of turrets, the 
easier it is to work them. 2. Although a lucky shot 
may dispose of three or four guns, this is compensated 
by the great numbers which can be mounted by this 
method. Or in the case of the "Tourville," a shot foul- 




J_i_l LXJ 




Side elevation and deck plan of the French dreadnought "Tourville." 



Ing one turret would still leave twelve big guns intact. 
::. The saving of weight is greater in twelve guns 
mounted in three or four turrets than in twelve guns 
mounted in six turrets. 

No attempt is made here to solve this weighty prob- 
lem, but merely to give some idea of the controversy 

existing on the subject. 

Reverting to the "Tourville" herself, we find that 
she is given the unprecedented armament of sixteen 
13.4-inch guns, in four turrets. In addition to the fact 
that her 13.4-inch weapons are compared with 12-inch 
guns, the ahead or astern fire of the "Tourville" is equal 

to the total broadside of the earlier dreadnoughts like 
the "Michigans," "Beller ophons," or "Nassaus." 

As in the previous "Normandies" the secondary arma- 
ment consists of twenty-four 5.5-inch guns, mounted in 
four groups of three on either broadside. The total 



broadside weight of the "Tourville" is about 24,840 
pounds (including the 5. 5-inch guns). In addition to 
these, six submerged torpedo tubes are installed, two on 
either broadside about in the wake of the space between 
the first and second turrets, and one on either broad- 
side below the third barbette. 

Details as to armor are not yet available; but she 
can reasonably be expected to have at least as heavy 
armor as the "Normandies" which have a belt 12% 
inches thick amidships, tapering to 7 inches forward 
and 7 inches aft. the belt ending a little distance from 
the stern. 

As regards protection against submarines, the fram- 
ing behind the armor is extremely massive and heavy, 

while a special arrangement of bulkheads 
has been fitted after extensive tests. The 
"Tourville" is designed for 23 knots. 

Ignition Cables 

A POINT which is too often overlooked 
is the matter of the quality of cables 
for high tension spark plugs, and this is 
often responsible for losses of current 
which occasion misfires and irregular 
working, which is supposed to be due to 
carbureter, magneto or spark plugs. One 
of the leading Paris magneto constructors 
calls attention to the trouble which can 
arise by neglecting the current cables. 
and at the same time produced a new 
safety cable of extra high insulation which 
is now giving excellent results. It has a 
diameter of only 7 millimeters (0.28 inch), 
but carries five insulating layers instead 
of three as iu the usual types. Such lay- 
ers are put on by a winding process and not by draw- 
ing, and this is claimed to increase the density and 
homogeneity of insulation. The inner rubber layer is 
not vulcanized in this case, so that there is no danger 
of alteration of the metal conductor by action of sul- 
phur. Perfectly pure rubber is used, which contains 
no foreign matter such as produces a blackish aspect 
in usual cables, so that there is no fear of hardening 
or cracking of the insulation, and the result is a perfect 
insulation which lasts for a very long period. 

Orville Wright Receives an Honorary Degree. — At 

the eighty-ninth commencement of Trinity College, at 
Hartford, Conn., the honorary degree of Doctor of 
Science was conferred upon Orville H. Wright. Another 
recipient of an honorary degree on this occasion was 

Governor Holcomb of Connecticut 







Not a subway, but a sewer made necessary by the new subways. 



The work at Broadway and Canal Street and connections with existing lines. Masses of 



Railroads Under and Over the Streets of New York 




Difficulty of Excavating Subways Through the Heart of a Big City 



FIFTY years ago when the question of having a subway in New York was 
first agitated, Alfred w. Craven, who was the chief engineer of the Crototi 
Aqueduct, came out Batty against the proposition on the ground "thai the pro 
posed underground railway beneath Broadway would cut the main arterj of 
the water supply system: that during its construction the water must pass 
through side pipes which would not supply the wants of the Inhabitants; that 

no water would be available for extinguishing tires; that factories must be 

stopped ami the damages accruing as the result would be enormous, say. not loss 

than one hundred million dollars." He declared further "that any tunnel exca 
VatiCU by blasting, even at a depth of ten or fifteen feet under the water pi|K's 
would injure the joints of the pipes by concussion." Tin' irony of fate may I 
seen in the appointment of this man's nephew ami namesake, Alfred Craven, to 

the position of the chief engineer of the Public Service Commission, which is 

now adding over fifty miles of new subways to the system that has already 
proved its success. 

If we would measure the increased facilities that will be afforded by the 
lines now building or recently completed we must consider track mileage ratlu 
than line mileage: for capacity is an even more important factor of a rapid 

transit line than length. The existing subwaj covers seventy-thin miles of 
track, of which about sixty an- audi round. The new lines win add uearlj one 
hundred and fifty miles of un< ground track. But we cannot separate under- 
ground from overhead railways, i- ause all the subways break out of the ground 
at one point or another and are continued as surface or elevated structures. 
Furthermore, under the Dual System contracts they are Interconnected with 

the existing elevated lines. Considering then tin- entire rapid transit system of 
Greater New York we find that the existing lines contain 296 miles of track, 
to which new lines will add 324.9, making 620.9 track miles. This does not 
include 7.1 miles of the Hudson and Manhattan Railroad, which is not embraced 

in the I>ual System. 

By the terms of the Dual System contracts, it will be recalled, the rapid 

transit system of New York is apportioned for operation between the Interbor- 

ough Rapid Transit Company ami the Brooklyn Rapid Transit Company, the 

latter operating its new lines under the name of the New ^ nrk Municipal Rail 
way Corporation. But popularly the two systems are known as the I. R, T. and 
the B. R. T. 

The accompanying map shows just bow the territory has been apportioned 

between the two companies and what new lines are being added, but it does no 
show the miles of third track added to elevated lines, which, becaii it will carry 

the tide of traffic during rush hours adds far moi than fifty per cent to the 
capacity of the elevated railroads. The Dual System will in e the transpor- 




tation facilities of Manhattan above Fifty-ninth street, three-fold 

and below that point, live-fold. Three new tunnels will be COll- 

b t meted under the I'.ast River and one under the Harlem River 

I now practically completed), while the Steinway tunnel, built 
long since and just opened for traffic, will form part of a new 

line running from Times Square to Long Island City, connecting 

there with elevated lines extending to Astoria ami Corona. 

The accompanying map tells more than pages of description, 

but it may not be amiss to refer to the so-called "H" system of 

the I. U. T. Trains coming down Broadway to Forty-second 
Street will continue down the west side under an extension of 
Seventh Avenue, while trains running up Fourth Avenue to Forty- 
second Street, will continue up the east side under Lexington 

Avenue. These form the two legs of the "H." while Forty-second 
Street Is the cross bar, and h- shuttle trains from Times Square 
to ihe Grand Central Station will enable passengers to transfer 

from the western to the eastern line and vi >ersa. 

Engineering Work. 

Never has there been an engineering undertaking that could 
ompare with the work now going on in .New York, in difficulty 

and variety of knotty problems encountered. There is work in 
soft earth, in gravel interspersed with bothersome boulders, in 
quicksands, in the beds of old streams long buried, but still per- 
meated with water to such an extent that the subway construc- 
tion must be weighted down with masses of concrete to keep it 




I ig. 1. — Method of suspending 

/Sheet Si 




Concrete 
Saddle 



\ jTudso?i add J\ 



Fig. 2. — Bridging the Hudso 




Pumping out the excavation at Canal Street and Broadway 



Map of the new and existing rapid transit lines of New 



■WIER1CAN 



July 10. 191 



17 






<J 





ncrete shown at i ht* left iriU k p the structure from Hontitm up through the street. 

from tln.it i up ..in ,»f Die i mi. Then, on the other baud 

there is work In hard rock thai must be drilled and blasted, In 

« I i - i 1 1 1 « • lt i : 1 1 1 ■ . 1 i k that maj be p luctlve i ld< and In si n\ 

rock with ti strata ram sharp angle or even vertically 

so thai ' musl i LipiMtrted i ■> timber prevent « I i trou 

■>\'uU I):. • ticklish crossii «.\. under and between exist 

ing I in* and, In order t- \<»i«l ., point 

whet subway ti apon itsel ifter the mennei th. cork 

screw . 

Au\ connected st« ..| the entire v would l- Par t 

length} fot thi hum We ran ni fer b mini hen 

and tin thai itid* out prom In the n The} wil 

i ii up under the following headings: The work under 4 

the work under water, and tl rhead. 

The Work Under Foot. 

l'r« \* artii ii the SciKxnrn \ v\ i. i 

thi er method ul>\\ n, explaii nov. 

p • during the nigl bours whej 

»t> prad illy <i and replaced with ;i d kii 

of heavj plank that workmen can burrow under thi er 

without disturb!] traffic, pnttlu In »lumna t<. npporl 

tl» kii the ex< u i The pre work hi 

i" tv up. in i ,,,, 

porting th- "in in n, week sbov i 

m which d with the forest ml. h. tofon 

required. mix up .in uii r thi trackn 

-l.i mmi 
« tins liar bi bulll out f a the Idc f the •• 

tton. On th brad th- itreet ug i support! Phe 

IT' "111 tl I I, |,\ || .. ,.i 

cantili in to support the si u i tin \t ton to 

b ii pla< in the ii- ting, A - >i i •<! 

ilng i iu length, . thai it- i r- 



he foundation- of a building, 



TS 




no 



in/iattan Tubes 



\ and Manhattan tubes. 



. 




— ruta i 

— • — •— 

ti r. 

— — — .'. 3uC>*A, 

ttc 9 

a a. • por sco 

•' I < VP/. J Ah 

Afi < POT H/TMOl V 

ino c/ftcie //vo/- 

C* * LOCAL. J51Al/Oh 

T A7h hS OH LX/ST/NO 

•■ sAMr si/icrr 



fork, which will furnish a total of 620.b milts of track. 




Building on Lexington tvenue temporarily supported on jacks. 

11 extension blocked audi the decking already laid, may serve as a counter- 

i 1 ' the \ --.ii .ii ahead. 

Thi ri..n of a subwaj under the streets of Now York calls for an 

amaaingly J mot of subsidiary work. Cloa under the treets thi a 

N;,M '" of pipe and conduits Interlaced in a seemingly Inextricable 

11 which urn i be maintained undisturhe<i. t<. remove all danger of ga 

'" the i ni Hi ire taken otri of the « avatlon, and rried on 

ti - over the ewalks, while the mains for local erv pU i along 

tin mi: .-ii the url 

Rft onstruction of Sewers. 

Cuttln to the surface the subv Intercept many ewer mains and 

requlri n euormou amount of structlon. Flfl four mil. of 

ebuill or i i with new llni in one place a new ewer a mile lo g 

Is h ng dug down Thirtieth Street to the North River, in everal plao invei I 
siphi I had u> be constructed t.» carry thi iev under the subway. 

I" thla nnection it is inter, ting t«. mention a place on Fourth Avenue 
B 'kivn. where the citj wai anging ti ewer tern, and expected t< 

dispense with a stretch of aev . running from Atlantic Avenue to Butle Street 
x ilu '" thi i plan the ne* ewer system was to be completed ii 

i lil > ' ''"'• to rmll of building the sulw up Fourth Avenue at that poiul 
,: '" ,,|4,, '«- w hitch that delayed mattera until the subway work was well 

»' tl ti point, with the big fourteen fool brick sewer running bl up 
the iter .»f i ourse f.»r a ance of 2,000 t. Ii . topping 

mbui w..rk. however, it was continued until one «'f the track sections was 

n I promptly onven nto a temporary r. m 

u " ; ' was Inclosed and pi Ided with an inverted-arch floor; then a siphon 
v buill ■ the downstream end of this temporarj r under the 

I ' .urth Avenm mbn with the sewer running d< a Butler sir. 

: done, the diverted from Its old brick conduit and run through 

ib* n, permitting thi it of th sub to be compl. 

Underpinning Buildings. 

Building found nbwi contractor a deal <>f trouble. Where 

M " »bwaj cut Is deeper than the adjacent foundations thi always the 

laugei i.h \.i» when tl foundations are built on rock, b rase much <»f 

the i k i^ irery soft ami my. Often the foundations themseh a 
acted. \n • r.-m dlfflcull situation Is to he found wn b 
the Wii 8ti I line, wh tail and heavy build 1 1 n..i. strai 

•"': buildh an buill on foundationa thai nave »• an Lov. 

rock bj d Pr Ulj all the buildit long tl lii 

■ upported temp while the subway p them oi e be pr «i 

with n. u tout trried down to subgrade «»f the subway line The 

tctor who • building this portion of th. ubwaj Is charging nearly as much 
underpinning as f. actual excavation. 

A ' '^««« unple «-r underpinning Is to be found In Brooklyn, where 

1 '" « hoi ding being temporarily suj irted during i i- 

!| •' " ^ubwaj i II foundatioi] > i Jumns of this building r< 

on i Ulage <»t' i ma eml \ in a mass .»t concrete As the sn 

M poet 








An Inverted sewer siphon running under one of the ne* subwaya 






48 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN 



July 10, 1915 



Systematic Observation of Meteors 

An Opportunity tor the Amateur Astronomer 

By Prof. S. A. Mitchell, of the Leander McCormick Observatory 






• 



WHO of us is Dot familiar with the darting rush of light through the sky which 
we call a shooting star, or in its more splendid forms, a meteor or a fire-ball? 
Some of these objects are so faint that they are glimpsed only out of the corner of 
one's eye; some are so bright that they Illuminate the landscape, and so close thai 
the noise is heard as they explode into fragments. The popular Impression regarding 
meteors is that they fall in haphazard fashion, obeying 

no laws, and consequently, study of them would be 
futile. As a matter of fact, their systematic observa- 
tion furnishes the amateur with a splendid opportunity 
to do work of great scientific value, and this may he 
done without an expei ve equipment and almost with- 
out previous training. 

The amateurs in astronomy undoubtedly vastly out- 
number the amateurs in an\ other science. There is a 

great fascination about observing the moon, or Saturn, 
or watching a double star like /? Cygni with striking 

differences in color. The beginner feels greatly elated 

when he lirst obtains his three- or four-inch telescope. 
He picks up, one after the other, the familiar objects in 
the sky. and takes particular delight in showing them 
to his friends. He generally finds, however, that the 
novelty soon wears off; there is no convenient place 

for Betting up the telescope, clouds Interfere, and as 

the winter comes on, the weather pets raw and the cold 

penetrates. And so, little by little, the enthusiasm dies 

out — ami soon there Is a second-hand telescope for sale. 
Fortunately for science, the human mind is consti- 
tuted in such a fashion that no task is too long to 
tackle provided that the results to be obtained are of 
value. The tried astronomer can keep up his en 
thusiasm through a long night at the telescope with the 
temperature twenty degrees below zero, because he has 
the feeling that he is adding something to the sum total 
of human knowledge. It is the lack of purpose in the 
work of the amateur that causes him to lose his inter- 
est and neglect his telescope. If the beginner could 
feel assured that his work was of value, he would cheer- 
fully endure the cold, the discomfort and the lack of sleep. Many years ago in 
Chicago, an amateur started to observe double stars; and Burnham made of himself 

the greatest double star observer the world has ever known. 

It was really not till fifty years ago, or after the wonderful shower of 1866, that 
the great importance of meteor observations was recognized. Schiaparelli showed 
that the August meteors and Tuttle's comet moved about the sun in the same path; 
while it was soon demonstrated that the November meteors and Temple's comet 
likewise had a similar connection. When in 1872 Biela's comet failed to reappear, but 
instead there was a shower of meteors radiating from the point where the comet 
would have been seen, then it was evident that the connection between comets and 
meteors was not an accidental one. Biela's comet was the first one to be seen to 
break up. A similar catastrophe has recently happened to Mellish's comet, as 
Observed by Barnard at Yerkes Observatory on May 12th, 1915. 

Our best theory regarding the tail of a comet is the light-pressure theory: that 
the particles forming the tail of the comet are repelled by the pressure of sunlight. 
As a result of this theory, the comet is continually forming 
a new tail, the comet is slowly being disintegrated. The 
particles that once formed the comet's tail must of necessity 
follow nearly the same orbit about the sun that the 

head of the comet took. Consequently, each comet 

must have a meteor shower connected with it. These 
showers have been detected only in the case of some 
of the periodic comets. Olivier has shown conclu- 
sively that Halley's comet has an attendant 
meteor shower known as the y Aqua rids. He 
has observed some of these meteors in May, 
1915, five years after the return of Halley's 
comet ! 

While this connection between meteors 

and comets is of the greatest impor- 
tance, still meteor observations are of 
great value to the meteorologist as 
they tell him the height of th< it- 
mosphere. the drift of the upper 
atmosphere, etc. Meteors in a 

shower move in parallel paths. 
These objects, which are 
comparatively near to the 
observer, are projected by 
the eye backward to the 
celestial sphere, with the 
result that by pers[>ective 
the meteors all appear to 
radiate from a point — or 
rather small area in the 
sky. Those meteors near- 
est the radiant have usually 
the shortest paths, those 
farthest away the longest. 
The meteor shown takes its 
name from the constella- 
tion in which the radiant 
is found. The accurate 




Photograph by Barnard of the Milky Way, show- 
ing a meteor. 




Meteor observer's map for July and August. 



position of the radiant is specially desirable, ami this may be found by anyone who 
exercises a little care and a little patience. The general plan for oh rving is to 

have a map before one. specially prepared for the pan of the sky where the observer 
is watching, and put down on this map as accurately as possible th.« meteors as 

they are seen. If the meteor paths when produced backward are to Intersect in the 

radiant, the positions of the individual in eors must 
be plotted with accuracy. This, however, with a littl 
experience can easily be attained. 

Prof. Charles P. Olivier of the Leander McCormick 
Obsei itory of the University of Virginia has observed 

more meteors than anyone else in America, and he is 
a recognized authority on their study. He 1: given 
the benefit of his experience in some printed rules, 
which if followed by a 1 inner, will make him a 
valued meteor observer. The National Academy of 

Sciences has awarded to the Leander McCormick Ob- 
servatory a small grant for the purpose of encouraging 
meteor researches. Fortunately a series of valuable 

maps of the sky have just been published by i»r. Rey- 
nold K. Young of the Dominion Observatory. To all 

those who will engage in systematic observations of 
meteors and who will write to the Leander McCormick 
Observatory, University of Virginia, a series of m a 

and a set of rules for ol ition will be sent free of 

Charge, The directions for observing meteors as given 
by Prof. Olivier are as follows: Maps are prepared of 
the region of the sky that is to be specially observed 
on a given night. On a separate second sheet, a num- 
ber of columns are ruled, beaded as follows: 1. time; 
2, number; M, class; 1, color; 5, magnitude, 6, length of 
path; 7, duration in tenths of seconds; 8, duration of 
train in tenths of seconds; I), remarks; 10, serial num- 
ber; 11, accuracy. The designations are mostly self- 
explanatory; 2. gives the number of the meteor for the 
night; 10, the serial number for the year (please omit t ; 
11, gives whether accuracy was good, fair, or poor. 
On the map beside the plotted path of the meteor is 
placed the number of the meteor for the night. The methods used to obtain the 
most accurate plot of a meteor's path are as follows: The greatest must be 

taken to obtain the direction and any one point over which the meteor passed. 1 - 
quontly a met- 's beginning and ending fall at or near a very QSplCUOUS star, 

or at. such a distance between two stars that it is easy to estimate the distance very 
accurately, in such cases me direction, determined nearly always by holding up a 
straight rod so that it appears to lie parallel to the meteor's path in tl ky. serves 
mainly as a convenient check. In most cases, however, the meteor neither begins 
nor ends at a point which is easy to determine. Then by glancing backward and 
forward along the rod, the eye can generally pick up some satisfactory -tar near 
to the meteor's path. As the eye readily estimates the length of path of : , meteor 
with fair accuracy, the parts in front and behind the chosen point can be estimated 
instantly, and by means of another reference point entirely outside the path, the 
meteor's position can be obtained with great accuracy and speed. 

In case an observer may feel unable to undertake the full programme of work 

as outlined, he can still do useful work by counting the num- 
ber of meteors that fall per hour with careful notes as to 
the condition of the sky. Anyone who observes between 
July 20th and August loth is sure to eaten a large number 
Of meteors. The number Of meteors seen per hour in- 
creases from sunset to dawn, the greatest number 
ge rally being stn^n just before sunrise. The pres- 
ent time of year is a most auspicious one for the 
beginner in meteor observing. The weather is 
warm, so that observations can be made in com- 
fort. During the latter half of July and 
throughout August a meteor may be seen by 

anyone who has patience enough to watch 

for ten or fifteen minutes, while two or 

three or even half a dozen may be seen 

in this time. The beginner should be 

cautioned against trying to observe 

when the sky is not perfectly clear, 
or when the moon is bright, for 
then only the very brightest me- 
ters can possibly be seen. Most 

astronomical work is valuable 

only when followed up regu- 
larly and systematically, but 
each nighfs work on me- 
teors is separate and valu- 
able by Itself. Bach ob- 
server will gel full credit 

for all of the work which 
he sends in to the Leander 

McCormick Observat o r y, 

which by the grant of the 

National A' iy, has be- 

come the central bureau for 

m e t e o r observations In 
America. H< » is a splen- 
did chance for amateurs to 
do real astronomical work. 



July 10, 1915 

Railroad Const ruction at Night in Africa 

PICTUEED in the accompanying engraving is an ap- 
paratus thai is being used in Africa to permit of 
railroad construction at night. A freight oar is utilized 
is a lighting plant. Projecting from a tower built at 

one end of the ear is a light arm that extends far out 
over the track. At the extreme end of this arm two 
searchlights are placed, while other lamps are located 
at intervals along the arm. By means of 

this arrangement plenty of light can be 
shed upon the portion of the track that 

the arm overhangs, while beams of the 
searchlights can be cast ahead where the 
work of preparing the roadbed is under 
way. The lighting plant permits of 
Carrying on work in the cool hours, 
while the torrid sun has retired below the 
horizon. 



First Aid in the Hog Yard 

ABOUT the only time a hog forgets 
his fleas is when he is eating. The 
rest of the time the porker grunts and 
rubs against the fence post or the corner 
of the pen. Once a week if the fanner 
will pour about a pint of kerosene along 
the hack of each hog from the ears to the 
tail he will temporarily alleviate the 

trouble. 

However, It takes quite a little time to 
coal-oil the hogs as each animal has to- 
be penned or caught. Thai is why an 
ingenious farmer devised the oil roller, 
which is illustrated here. This roller con- 
sists of an iron cylinder which revolves 
over and through a pan of oil. When the 
hog rubs against the cylinder his body is 
coated with the oil. which is obnoxious to 
ileas. The more the hog rubs the more oil 
he brushes over his body. The oil tank 
and the roller are bolted to a wooden plat- 
form or to heavy two by sixes or four by 
fours set in the ground so that the hogs 
will be unable to overturn the device. It 
will only take the animals a little while 
to learn that the roller is a practical first 
aid with which to light the flea. Every 
hog lot should be provided with one of 
the oil rollers or a home-made makeshift 
to serve the same purpose. 

An Automatic Poultry Feeder 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN 

to the tank. The wire handles are of different length 
so that as the float descends they are successively 
pulled down at predetermined intervals, throwing the 
cans over. When a can is thrown over the lid swings 
open and the feed is thrown out on the ground. 

Each food container has stamped upon its lid a num- 
ber representing the hours to elapse before it is re- 
leased, reckoning from the time the apparatus is filled 



49 



t tnp I ME is Money" is a true saying, 
A and the farmer's wife w T ho keeps 
poultry knows full well that regular feed- 
ing is essential if they are to thrive and 
gain strength and put on weight every day, 
besides doing their duty in providing eggs 
for the household and markets. To poul- 
try keepers all the world over it is impor- 
tant that where large numbers of fowls 
are kept their assistants should see to it 
that their feathered charges are supplied 
with sustenance in just sufficient quanti- 
ties at precise intervals and that this sup- 
ply of drinking water is ample and clean. 
This means a certain amount of detail 
work and supervision, which again means 
time oi- money's equivalent, spent on the 
care of the birds. To save the time of 
the poultry keeper and relieve him of 

much otherwise necessary work and super- 
vision, are the objects of the apparatus 
here illustrated. It works on the principle 
of the water-clock. The water is supplied 
to the fowls in a drinking enp at ground 
level, but the food is out of sight and out 
of reach until served out by this auto- 
matic quartermaster at the proper time. 
At the base of the cylindrical water 
tank is a small threaded aperture with 
a collar projecting about % inch above 
the base inside. This outlet is covered 
with tine ganze and its slight elevation 
above the floor of the tank prevents its 
being choked by sediment. A brass tube 

18 inches in length is fitted into the hole 
and at the end of the tube is a valve which 
allows the water to drop to the pan placed 

on the ground beneath. A gallon of water 
is poured into the tank and in it is placed 
a float. 

The can-shaped food containers are 
fitted with flap-lids and have each a strong 
will handle or hook-shaped appendage 
Which passes over the upper edge of the 
tank and down inside, terminating in «-i 
hook that passes through a flange on the 
float. The bottoms of the cans are hinged 




with water. Obviously, regularity in time of feeding 
and the quantity of food supplied to the birds at. any 
given interval of time can be insured by selecting food 
containers with the corresponding length of handles. 
They can be arranged to feed at intervals of one or 
two hours in comparatively small quantities by varying 
lengths of handle, or the whole of the food can bo 
served out in one batch at a longer interval from the 

time of setting the apparatus. 



The Machine That Measures the 

Heat of Stars 



Lighting plant for railroad construction at night in Africa. 




Using an oiler to rid himself of fleas. 





Water-clock poultry feeder. 



Apparatus for measuring star heat. 




P 



Grinding a defective rail-joint with a hand-controlled machine. 



ERHAPS the most delicate thermo- 
electric battery ever constructed is that 
used by W. W. Coblentze, a physicist. <>f 
the United States Bureau of Standards, in 
the radiation pyrometer with which he 
has succeeded in measuring the heat that 
reaches the earth from 112 celestial bodies, 
including 105 stars. These measurements 
are the first extensive series of the kind 
ever made, and the work was done by Mr. 
Coblentze in the Lick Observatory at 
Mount Hamilton, Cal., last summer. As 

an example of the amount of heat that 
the earth receives from the stars, Mr. 

Coblentze estimated that if the rays of 
Polaris, or the North Star, were focused 
upon a gramme of water, it would require 
a million years for the temperature of the 
water to be raised one degree Centigrade. 
The sun's rays will accomplish the same 
work in about one minute. 

The distinctive thing about, the pyro- 
meter devised by Mr. Coblentze is its ex- 
treme delicacy, which makes it sensitive 
to a change in temperature of a millionth 
of a degree. "With the aid of a three-foot 
reflector, his instrument will register the 
presence of a candle fifty-three miles away. 

The vital part of the instrument is a 
thermal battery made by joining two wires 
of different metals — either platinum and 
silver or bismuth and silver — and cover- 
ing the junction with a heat-absorbing sur- 
face painted with lamp-black. The wire 
used is so fine that, it can scarcely be seen 
without the aid of a reading glass, and the 
absorbing surface is about the size of a 
pinhead. 

This battery is inclosed in a glass cell 
with a window of fluorite. A vacuum is 
maintained in the cell, and it is placed 
in a telescope so that the light of the star 
to be observed is focused upon the fluorite 
window. 

The tiny battery, or thermo-couple, is 
connected with a tangent galvanometer, 
which is inclosed in an armor of soft 
Swedish iron to protect it from ex- 
traneous magnetic influence. Thus the 
amount' of current generated in the ther- 
mo-couple by the heat of the star is meas- 
ured by the galvanometer. Within the 
galvanometer, a mirror smaller than a pin- 
head is suspended upon a fine thread of 
spun quartz. Some distance in front of 
the window in the galvanometer a scale is 
set up with a strong light upon it. This 
scale is reflected in the little mirror, 
which is observed through a microscope. 
There is a tiny clot upon one side of the 
face of the mirror. The generation of 
current in the thermo-couple causes the 
quartz thread to twist, turning the mirror 
from side to side; and this deflection is 
measured upon the reflected image of the 
scale. 

An Electric Rail Grinder 

THE accompanying illustration shows 
a very simple electric rail grinder de- 
veloped at London, England. The machine 
is so light that it can be instantly taken 
off the rail on the approach of a car and 
be put to work again in the space of about 
thirty seconds. Therefore, it may be oper- 
ated without interfering in the least with 
the regular service during the day. The 
ordinary rail grinders have to be used at 
night after the car traffic is stopped as 
they are so heavy and unwieldy as to call 
for a clear track and uninterrupted oper- 
ation, which means night work and extra 
pay for foreman and operators. 

It. is claimed that night grinding results 
in some very Indifferent work, the fitful 
light being responsible for disastrous 

(Concluded on pane 5.;.) 









50 



RECENTLY PATENTED INVENTIONS 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN 









, 



These columns are open to all patentees. The 
notices are Inserted by special arrangement 
with tlic Inventors. Terms on application to the 
Advertising Department of the Scientific 
Ameeican. 

Pertaining to Apparel. 

GARMENT SUPPORTER.— Jessie II. Ban- 
croft, 164 Sterling Place, Brooklyn, N. Y. 

The invention relates to garment supporters. 
especially hoc supporters for use by children 

and adults, ai. 1 refers more particularly to a 
device whirl] comprises two operatively asso- 
ciated members arranged to encompass the 
body, ami each having means for attachment 
to a stocking or other garment to support the 

same. 

IIIOIOI.. — S. B. p. Matacotta, 1347 E, S5th 
St., Brooklyn, \. Y.. N. Y. This invention pro 

vides a heel formed with a rotary member ami 
with a clamping structure which is adapted to 
clamp the rotary member in any desired posi- 
tion for presenting a perfectly constructed 
rear heel structure notwithstanding the wear 
on certain parts of the heel. 

COMBINATION SUIT.— W. K. Jones. 1501 
Holyoke Ave.. Wichita. Kan. In this case the 
drop flap can be securely fastened in position 
at the sides of the trousers and the skirt of 
the jacket also secured so as to cover the hip 
pockets and form an effective closure for the 
side slits between the trousers and the drop 
ftdp, thus excluding dust and dirt from the 
undergarments and person of the wearer, as 
well as protecting the hip pockets. 

Electrical Devices. 

ELECTRIC MEASURING INSTRUMENT.— 
L. LOGAN, 140 Hudson Ave.. Peekskill, N. Y. 
This invention relates to improvements in 
measuring devices for electric currents, and 
has for an object to provide a structure in 
which the principle of the rotation of the plane 
of polarized light is utilized for measuring va- 
rious currents of different strength. 

PRESSURE CONTROLLED ELECTRIC 
SWITCH FOR MOTOR OPERATED PUMPS.— 
S. S. Stahi*. Connellsville, Pa. This invention 
relates to an automatic switch of that type 
associated with a pressure responsive device 
for a pump or other system, whereby the 
witch of the pump driving motor is auto- 
matically opened and closed when the pres- 
sure of the fluid of the pump system increases 
or decreases to predetermined points. 

Of Interest to Farmers. 

APPLE GATE.— H. M. IIoit. R. F. I). No. G. 
Lower Naches Valley. Wash. Tins invention 
refers to grading articles as to size, with a 
particular reference to fruit which is packed 
in containers having all the trult of one size, 
and the main object thereof is to provide a de- 
vice for quickly determining the relative siz< 

of apples, oranges and the like, and without 
any injury to the fruit. 

Of General Interest. 

BULLET OR PROJECTILE FOR FIRE- 
ARMS. — A. DOBBBGEANSKY, Col. C.uards-Infan- 
terie, Petrograd, Russia. This invention in- 
creases accuracy of aim and the projectile's 
initial velocity without increasing the maxi- 
mum permissible pressure of powder -uses in 
the barrel of hand firearms. Besides this, the 
construction of the bullet permits it to main- 
tain, to a great extent, the speed when flying, 
by which the utmost piercing capacity of the 

bullet is conditioned. All their ballistic quali- 
ties are attained because the center of grav- 
ity of the bullet is transferred nearer to its 
head portion and the core of the bullet is 
niade out of two metals : one a heavy and soft, 
the other a light and hard metal. 

COLLAPSIBLE CORE FOR CONCRETE 

CULVERTS.— A. E. Camblix, .Stella. Neb. 
This improvement refers to collapsible cores 
or concrete culverts and other devices for use 
in concrete structures, or which are adapted 
to freely support mold-boards, the inventor's 
object being to provide a structure which may 
be nadily and quickly collapsed and with- 
drawn from the molded structure. 

APPARATUS FOR BURNING STUMPS.— S, 
F. ZYSSET, Thomas, Ore. Considerable time 
and labor is required to destroy stumps by 

burning, owing to the stumps being green or 

unseasoned, and there is difficulty in causing 

them to undergo combustion, and especially 



net* as to promote the t borough combustion 
thereof. Tli.' Invention burns not only the en- 
tire upper portion of the stump, but also the 
root system, and even destroys individual roots 
of la rye size. 

LIFE BOAT.- D. Basile, 1*7 Arch St.. New 

Britain, Conn. This invention refers to im- 
provements in ships, boats and the like, and 
the object is a construction wherein life boats 
will be the dominating feature. It provides a 
Ship with a plurality of life boats forming part 
of the ship, but attached therefrom, the same 
acting as life boats and as part of the ship to- 
gether with means for positively holding the 
boat in place until it becomes desirable to 
use the auxiliary boats. 

RARER BOX HANDLE.— C. J. Fkeesb, 
Blyria, Ohio. The invention has reference 
more particularly to a handle for paper boxes 
formed of two sections, which handle inter- 
locks the two sections when they form a box. 
The invention provides a simple, strong and 




ment more .specially designed for drafting 
from any good pattern the true contour of the 
cutting edge of a knife or cutter, such as is 
used in the revolving cutter head of a planer, 
ma tcber. simper, sticker or other similar wood- 
working machine. 

POWDER BLOWER.— A. Sincjek. 68 Riving 

ton St., New York, N. Y. This improvement 
lias reference to powder blowers and more par- 
ticularly to an attachment adapted to be ap- 
plied to a cam or container of powder whereby 
the powder can be forced out from the can or 

container by puffs. 

VETERINARY INSTRUMENT. — C. J. Koa- 
inkk. Address Korinek Veterinary Remedy 
Co., Medford, Ore. This invention is an im- 
provement in balling irons or capsule guns em- 
ployed in administering medicine, in solid form 
or capsules, to horses or horned cattle, by the 
mouth, the same being made so that the medi- 
cine can be placed in tin' posterior part of the 
animal's mouth, so that it will be swallowed 
without mastication. Such instruments have 
generally been made entirely of iron and diffi- 
cult to use. 

COLLAPSIBLE FOLDING TABLE WITH 
ADJUSTABLE DRAWING-BOARD AND AR- 
TIST'S EASEL.— L. S. Cozzens. care of U. E. 
Brown, 31 Nassau St., New York, N. Y. This 
invention provides a table and a device by 
which the drawing-board attached to the table 
may be inclined at any angle from horizontal 
to vertical position; provides a device by which 
the drawing-board may be revolved and auto- 
matically locked in normal positions; provides 



PAPER BOX HANDLK. 

inexpensive handle for facilitating the carry- 
ing of paper boxes, which handle will not add 
greatly to the cost of manufacturing the box 
nor to the bulk thereof in storing the sections 
forming the box. 

SHOE BUTTON SEPARATOR. -A. F. Sea- 
man, 334 South Jackson St.. Pottsvllle, Pa. By 
use of this device a number of buttons may be 
quickly and easily separated so that the dif- 
ferent sizes may be withdrawn when desired. 
The buttons are quickly sorted and the differ- 
ent sizes of buttons stored separately in such 
manner that a particular size of button may 
be withdrawn when desired without disturbing 
the other size or enabling the same to again 
mix. 

BUTTER CUTTER.— II. B. Drosin and M. 
GORDON, care of the former, 1505 Metropolitan 
Ave., Brooklyn. N. Y., N. Y. This invention 
provides a butter cutter comprising an open 
bottom box having an adjustable plunger 
therein for determining the weight of the cake 
of butter to be produced, there being a novel 




July 10, 1915 

and ranging lengthwise of the syringe, the arm 
extending beyond the rear end of the dip and 
being bent inward so that its free end bears 
against the outside of the plunger of the 

syringe to hold the said plunger against acci- 
dental movement in the barrel. 

THUMB TACK. P. A. FiscHEB, 137 W. 

141st. St., New York. N. Y. This tack is for 
use by draftsmen and other persons and is ar- 
ranged to permit tin- user to readily push the 
tack in place, and to allow of quickly remov- 
ing it without resorting to a prying operation 

and without danger of marring tin- drawing or 
other article held in place by the tack. 

TOOL. — j. J. Patterson, 702 4th St.. Coeur 

d' Alene, Idaho. This invention provides a tool 
having means to secure it to a bench or like 
support, and possessing marked practicability 
as a clamp for cabinet makers and wood work- 
ing, or as a vise convertible for use either as 
a pipe vise, or for filing and other vise work, 
and adapted to constitute an efficient tool con- 
vertible into either a pipe wrench or monkey 
wrench. 

TOOL.— E. C. WOENS, 287 W. 127th St., 
New York, N. Y. This invention provides a 
tool adapted to be employed as a scraper, or 
an ironing tool by furriers, for scraping the 
fat from the furs, and for ironing down a 
seam, in order to perforin operations now re- 
quiring a scraper and a separate ironing device. 



(IAS 

Vodges 
lates 




TOLL APS 1IJLE FOLDING TABLE, DRAWING BOARD 

AND EASEL. 

for the removal of the drawing-board, or the 
substitution of the board by a drawing-board 
of similar or other dimensions; provides an ar- 
rangement whereby the drawing table ma., 
used as an artist's or draftsman's easel, or any 
oilier purpose for which such a device can be 
employed; and provides a shell which can be 
folded up compactly with the table. 

Hardware and Tools. 

■ 

SELF LOCKING HINGE.— C. Dienek, 1421 
Myrtle Ave.. Brooklyn, N. Y., N. Y. Means are 
provided to hold the leaves of the hinge in dif 
ferent relative positions Immovable with re 
spect to each other, the sleeve or knuckles of 
the hinge plates or leaves being designed to 

co-operate with each other or with spring actu- 
ated means in order to hold the leaves of the 
hinge in certain relative positions or closed as 

desired. 

NUT LOCKING APPLIANCE.— G. W. Watts, 

328 Central Ave., Hot Springs. Ark. This in 
vention is an Improvement in nut locks in 
which a .damp-screw is threaded through the 
side of a nut and its point engages the thread 



Heating and Lighting. 

COCK.— G. W. Campbell, Jr., 203 N. 
St.. Philadelphia, Pa. This invention 
to gas cocks used in connection with 
flexible conduits, as for lamps, stoves and the 
like, and one of the main objects thereof is to 
provide means in connection with such devices 
whereby the gas will be automatically shut off 
in the event of disconnection, accidentally or 
otherwise, of the conduit from the cock. 

METHOD OF WORKING AMMONIA KIO 
CO VERY PRODUCER GAS PLAN T S.— T. 
RlGBY, Station Hotel. Dumfries. Scotland. This 
invention greatly reduces the cost of produi 
tion of briquet fuel made from brown coal peat 
lignite or the like, it utilizes all or a portion 
of vapor in an ammonia recovery gas plant 
worked in conjunction with a fuel briqueting 
plant by mixing the vapor with air compress 
ing the mixture, and passing it under pressure 
into the air supply of the gas producers to re- 
place wholly or partially the auxiliary steam 
usually employed for this purpose. 

Household Utilities. 

WINDOW CLEANER.— F. S. Neydhart, 2»;l> 
Palisade Ave.. West Hoboken, N. J. This in- 
vention comprises a two-part frame, the parts 
being pivoted together at a single point, one 

of the parts including a rigid handle coupe. rat- 




It UTTER CUTTER 




\itai:\ti s kok BURNING STUMPS. 

those portions of the stump which are close to 
the surface or below the surface of the ground. 

it is desirable that combustion shall destroy 
1 be large mass of woody fiber just below the 
surface of the ground ami commonly desig- 
nated as the rooi system of the stump or tree. 
Vet considerable difficulty is experienced in 

supplying air to the root system In stub man- 



arrangement of cutting devices which move 
inwardly from the ends of the box along the 

bottom thereof for severing the butter from 

the mass after the box has been tilled, by the 

pressing of the device downwardly int.. the 

mass of butter. 

HAIR DRYING FRAME.— T. C. Kandall, 
Box 194, Tenally. X. J. This invention relates 
to an appliance adapted to be used in drying 
ladies' hair after the same has been washed, 
or after bathing, whereby the hair is supported 
off the shoulders to enable the air to obtain 

better access thereto ami to enable an attend- 
ant to more easily rub the hair dry and 
comb it. 

SAFETY AND SANITARY ENVELOPE. 




II. II. Palmer, 84 Columbus St.. Charleston, 

S. C. The object, here is to provide a fasten- 

tng means for the closing flap composed of co- 
acting elements which may be engaged with 

facility and which will Involve the minimum 

cost of manufacture. The prim rjeel is to 

provide a mailing envelope, die contents of 

which will be protected without the necessity 

-.f sealing or gumming the closing flap of the 

envelope 

PROJECTING INSTRUMENT.— F. W. Lank. 
»'bico, Cal. The invention provides an instru- 



NUT LOCKING APPLIANCE. 

of the bolt to which the nut is applied. The 
nut is first of all locked by the clamp-screw, 
and the latter is in turn locked by a forked 
device plato, so that loosening of the nut by 
jarring or vibration is impossible. 

SINGLE ACTING LAVATORY HINGE.— 0. 

Katzbnbergeb, 215 \V. Huron St.. Chicago. III. 

This invention relates to improvements in 

spring hinges, and particularly to what are 
commonly known as lavatory hinges, ami lias 
lor an object to provide a structure winch may 
be quickly and easily adjusted so as to hold 
the door closed or to hold the door open. 

SYRINGE. -F. S. Dickinson, care of !:«■<- 
ton. Dickinson & Co.. Rutherford, N. .1. In 

this device the plunger is held against acciden- 
tal dropping out of tin- barrel wlini pointing 
i be nozzle upward. To accomplish this result, 
use is made of a clip adapted to engage the 
barrel and spring arm extending from the clip 



WINDOW CLEANER. 

ing with the adjacent pivoted part so as to 
vary the pressure upon the pane, and each of 
said pivoted parts having connected to it a 
block to which are detaehably connected a 
plurality of cloths with means for readily de- 
taching a soiled cloth or removing it out of the 
way so as to present a fresh cloth to the work. 

DUIP PAN ALARM.— M. JacOBSON. 115 10. 
82ud St., New York. N. Y. This invention re- 
la tes to a refrigerator or ice box appliance 
and lias particular reference to drip pans for 
such devices. Among the objects of the inven- 
tion is to provide an audible alarm for a drip 
pan, which will serve to announce to the occu- 
pants «>f the house the fact that the drip pan 




DBIP I'VN ALARM. 

is full or nearly full of water; whereby the 
likelihood of flooding the floor of a building 
will be practically eliminated. Means provide 

ior breaking the circuit of alarm mechanism 

simultaneously with the grasping of the pan 

handle while withdrawing it from the refrlg 

era tor. 

CTENSIL KNOB. 10. C. Fkisk and 10. C, 
ANDERSON, Somerset. Wis. This invention ha 



July 10, 1915 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN 



1 



reference l" koobft for u i Fit' 1 cooking uten 
ii nnri the 'ike, «n^ bag reference morr par 
t icularlj <<» M «ir\ [cg fashioned from an olon 
gated, spirally disposed member and meana for 
attaching aaid member directly to the utensil 

or body. 

i Machines and Mechanical Devices. 
TOOTHPICK HOLDER.— 0. Dickson, 243 

Franklin St., Elizabeth, N. J. The invention 
relates to receptacles for articles, such as 

toothpicks, matches and the like, having moans 

for individual delivery of the articles con- 
tained therein, and one of the main objects is 
t<> insure a single delivery of one of said arti 

les in a single actuation of said delivery 

means. 

NUT TAPPING MACHINE.— T. M. DANIELS 
and .1. C. HOLSCHEMACHER. Address the for- 
mer. 827 South La Salle St., Chicago, III. This 
invention relates to machines for producing the 
screw-threads in nuts already provided with 

the boxes, and the main object is to provide 
such a machine which accomplishes this result 
automatically and continuously. The machine 
is \ery speedy in operation and, therefore, of 
great capacity. 

PtTMP ROD CONNECTOR. — M. Hartxkr, 
Hern don, Kan. Mr. Partner's Invention re- 
lates to pumps and especially of that type em- 
ployed in connection with wind-mills, and the 
main object thereof is to provide a connection 
between the wind-mill and pump which may be 
quickly and easily made operative or inoper- 
ative. 

ACTUATING DEVICE FOR PERCUSSION 

TABLES.— A. ( . Campbell, Asheville, N. C. 

The invention provides a new and improved 
actuating or impelling device for percussion 
tables, arranged to give the desired impetus to 
the percussion table and inertial resistance to 
impact with a view to facilitate the separation 
of the heavier and lighter materials. 

CLOCK A TTACHM E N T.— J. R. Moore, 
Winona. Tex. The object here is to provide an 
attachment especially adapted for use with 
alarm clocks for operating a series of alarms 




CLOCK ATTACHMENT. 

or signals arranged in different rooms of a 
building or in other separated stations for 
simultaneously sounding the alarms or for op- 
erating the signals at predetermined times. 

VENDING MACHINE. — J. CABTDN, 401 

South St.. Philadelphia, Pa. This machine has 
provision for vending different publications, 
the construction and arrangement being such 
that the dropping of a coin in an indicated 
chute closes an electric circuit whereby mechan- 
ical means then provides for withdrawing the 
desired publication and depositing it outside of 
the machine to be taken away by the pur- 
chaser. 

MACHINE FOR GUMMING AND APPLY 
INQ LABELS TO BOTTLES, CANS. AND 
SIMILAR OBJECTS. — C. L. Hatch ett and E. 
C. RHODES, 131 Wool Exchange, Coleman St., 
London. B.C., England. The cans or bottles 
are arranged in a row on an inclining table 
down which they slide and are delivered to a 
pair of rollers where the wrapping of the label 
is effected. An ingenious mechanism is pro- 
vided for delivering the bottles one at a time 
to the rollers and for discharging the bottle 
from the machine after the label has been 
applied. 

BANDING MACHINE.— M. F. Anderson, 
care of Standard Oil Clothing Co., 320 Broad- 
way, New York. N. Y. This invention provides 
a machine more especially designed for wrap- 
ping one or a series of gummed hands around 
a roll of oil cloth or other fabric and arranged 
to feed the bands to the rolls, to cut off the 
bands to proper length, to moisten the ends of 
the bands so that when the bands pass onto 
the peripheral face of the roll to be banded 
then the forward end sticks to the roll and the 
rear end overlaps the forward end and is fas- 
tened thereto. 

AUTOMATIC FOCUSING DEVICE.— L. W. 
BCTLER, 324 Putnam Ave., Brooklyn, N. Y.. 
N. Y. This device is adapted for use on almost 
any kind of projecting apparatus for the sake 
of making enlarged images of given objects. It 
is especially designed for making enlargements 
of negatives and it comprises essentially a 
holder for an object which is to be enlarged, a 
focusing device, and a screen on which the ob- 
ject to be enlarged is focused in the well- 
known way. 

LOOM ATTACHMENT.— P. Reilly, care of 

J P. Schmidt, 15 Greene St., New York, N. Y. 
In the present patent the object of the inven- 
tion is the provision of a new and improved 
loom attachment arranged to insure the forma- 
tion of a perfect selvage by preventing nicking 
thereof and to allow forming of fringes by the 

welt. ' 

RECORDING APPARATUS.— M. Irion and 
A. B. Mueller, 404 W. Market St., Louisville, 

Ky. This apparatus is for use in connection 

with automobiles, locomotives and other vehi- 

r'.s for the purpose of indicating the speed of 

travel at any moment, the daily t*nd total mile 






age pnd the tinii of day, hikI for Kinking * 

record of the rat° of travel mid the time* fliid 

durations of stoppage. 

GRAB FOR TRANSPORTERS, EXCAVAT- 
ORS, AND THE LIKE, ETribdrich Sochob, 

Vienna. Austria Hungary. The drawbacks of 
previously constructed grabs with variable 

gearing suitable for the handling of material 

in large pieces, reside in their great height 
necessary to obtain a sufficiently large open- 
ing, and their great weight owing to the con- 
siderable power required to close the jaws of 
the grab, and the consequence is that the crane 
is compelled to transport a considerable total 

weight. The present invention overcomes the 

above drawbacks by the construction of grabs 

of small height. 

SPEED INDICATING AND MILEAGE REG 
[STBRING APPARATUS.— M. Irion and A. E. 
MUELLER, 404 W. Market St., Louisville. Ky. 
This invention relates to an apparatus for use 
in connection with automobiles, locomotives 
and other vehicles. An object is to provide an 
accurate speed indicating means or speedom- 
eter of that type, including centrifugally acting 
elements, such as weights, whose outward 
movement is opposed by a series of finely ad- 
justed springs. 

SOUND BOX.— J. HOPPAY, 500 5th Ave.. 
New York, N. Y. This invention has reference 

to improvements in sound boxes or the like for 

gramophones, phonographs and the like ma- 
chines having the stylus lever made of a forked 
formation, the bifurcations straddling the dia- 
phragm, which formation is not per 86 new. 

GRINDING M A CHIN E.— C. E. Walling, 
5 Avondale Apt's., Indianapolis. Ind. This ma- 
chine is more especially designed for grinding 
taps, reamers and similar tools, and arranged 
to provide the cutting teeth of a tool with 
peripheral faces sloping rearwardly and in- 
wardly from the front edges of the teeth to the 
back thereof. 

AUTOMATIC STUFF BOX FOR TAPER 
MAKING MACHINES.— W. P. Feeney, 32 Elm 
St.. Hudson Falls. N. Y. This invention has 
for its object the provision of a stuff box for 
paper making machines having means to direct 
back to the chest all surplus stock before the 
surplus has sufficiently accumulated to in- 
crease the pressure at the outlet leading to the 
mixing box. 

CIGARETTE BOX GROUPING MACHINE. 
— Jose Ibarra, Habana, Cuba. This Invention 
provides means for arranging in order cigar- 
ette boxes so that they may be formed into 
what is termed a '•wheel'" : and provides means 
for grouping the boxes and coincidentally fix- 
ing the ends of the sealing stamps with which 
said boxes are provided. 

Railways and Their Accessories. 

PORTABLE SNOW SCRAPER FOR TROL- 
LEY CARS. — N. Darois, 21 05 Nostrand Ave., 
Brooklyn, N. Y., N. Y. This scraper is espe- 
cially designed for clearing street car tracks, 
and is adapted to be applied to the front of 
the car to take the place of the fender and 
thereby scrape the snow off the tracks and 
discharge it to the right side, which Is espe- 
cially advantageous in a double track system. 

AIR COCK OPERATOR.— J. B. DOYLE, 
Hamburg, Miss. The invention relates partic- 
ularly to freight cars, and specifically to air 
cocks, at the ends of such cars, which are 
adapted to be opened when two cars are cou- 
pled together and closed when said cars are 
uncoupled, and the main object is to provide 
means for accomplishing these operations from 
a position of safety, on the sides of the cars. 

TORPEDO HOLDER.— W. J. Strohm, Mo- 
line, Kan. The invention refers to signals, 
with especial reference to the flags and tor- 
pedoes commonly used on railways, and the 
main object thereof is to provide a flag-stick 
which also serves as a container for a suitable 
supply of torpedoes, whereby the certainty of 
such a supply, on demand, is assured, and 
whereby no loss of torpedoes may occur. 

FREIGHT CAR CARD HOLDER.— T. A. 
Biggs, 316 Quincy St., Rapid City, S. D. This 
device is comparatively simple and inexpen- 
sive and so designed as to hold cards in such 
a manner as to be easily and conveniently 
applied or removed, and thereby dispense with 
the necessity of using the hammer and tack 
method now commonly employed in placing 
cards on freight cars. 

VALVE MECHANISM.— J. G. Buchanan. 
Address Hiram A. I la t field. Box 101, Forest 
Grove, Ore. The inventor provides a device 
Which is to be used in connection with an au- 
tomobile triple valve for setting brakes either 
by applying excess air pressure which is car- 
ried on tlie engine, to the train line air press 
ure, or by the use of automatic air pressure 
us is now used, or by both excess air pressure 
and automatic air pressure combined. 

DRAW BAR AND COUPLING CON- 
NECTOR.— W. II. Maiioney, 9 North St.. 
Hingham, Mass. The invention provides means 
lor quickly and readily removing couplers from 
the yoke members of railway vehicles ; effects 
a saving in the cost of maintenance of yoke 
members and couplers therefor; and provides 
a connector for couplers arranged to fit the 
parts on which it is mounted singly and to 
eliminate noise and wear thereof. 

Pertaining to Recreation. 

SMOKING DOLL.— S. W. Stern, 415 
Chauncey St.. Brooklyn, N. Y.. N. v. The doll 

lias a tube extending from a cigarette in the 



doll'fl ruouth to s bulb within the doll, wn-i 
nnotber tube extending from the bulb with 
branches leading f<> the doll's mouth and nose 
so thai (he bulb may be pressed and smo! 

may be drawn through the first tube through 
a valve at the bulb and the smoke may be 

exhausted from the bulb to the second tube 

through a second valve, the smoke being led 
by the second tube and tube ami branches 
through the doll's mouth and nose. 

TOY CANNON.— Z. E. HOUSE, t'ass Lake, 
Minn. This invention has for its object the 
provision of a device of the character speci- 
fied, so constructed and arranged that it will 




TOY CANNON. 



explode a paper fulminate cap, and will utilize 
the products of the explosion to project a ball 
of cotton, paper or like light materials. The 
accompanying engraving represents a longitud- 
inal vertical section of the improved cannon. 

AMUSEMENT APPARATUS.— G. Muller. 
40 Beverly Road, Ridgewood, N. .1. In this 
case the object Is to provide a new and im- 
proved amusement apparatus more especially 
designed for use in pleasure resorts, parks, 
fairs and like places, and arranged to carry 
passengers through the air in imitation of a 
trip in an aeroplane. 

Pertaining to Vehicles. 

DEVICE TO PREVENT THEFT OR UNAU- 
THORIZED USE OF AUTOMOBILES, MOTOR 
BOATS. AND THE LIKE.— H. F. Fagan, 143 
W. 95th St., New York, N. Y. In this case the 
invention comprises a device for locking the 
steering wheel of the automobile or boat to the 
body of the vehicle in such a manner as to 
hold the steering wheel against rotation, and 
thereby prevent the steering of the vehicle in 
a desired course. 

TIRE LINING.— L. P. Deslauriers, P. O. 
Box 42, Ware, Mass. This invention relates to 
tire linings, especially those linings which are 
placed between the inner tube and outer cas 
ing of a pneumatic tire. An object is to pro- 
vide a knitted fabric for covering inner tubes, 
said fabric being continuous in form and being 
so shaped as to obviate the formation of 
wrinkles or creases. 

STEERING WHEEL LOCK.— N. Smith. 181 
North Walnut St., East Orange, N. J. An ob- 
ject of the invention is to prevent an unauthor- 
ized person from unlawfully appropriating the 
vehicle by driving the same away. A further 




a steering 
articulated 
automobile 

V. K.mp- 



STEEBING WHEEL LOCK. 

object is to provide a lock which forms part of 
the steering column and whereby the steering 
wheel may be locked in any desired position. 
The lock for the steering wheel normally leaves 
freedom of movement to said wheel. 

STEERING MECHANISM FOR VEHICLES. 
— J. II. Ayre, Box 435, Tilton, N. II. This in 
vention lias for its object the provision of a 
steering mechanism for vehicles having a 
threaded rod which is operated by 
wheel and which meshes in a nut 
to levers connected with the usual 
axles, pivoted on vertical axes. 

A NTI S K I DDI NG DE V I CE.— D. 
man. 227 E. llbtb St., New York, N. Y. This 
invention relates to an attachment for the 
Wheels of automobiles and other vehicles em- 
ploying similar wheels, and an object is to pro 
vide a device which may be readily applied to 
the wheel. It provides a device presenting a 
substantially complete covering for the tread 
of a tire, or in separated sections. 

AUTOMOBILE THEFT INDICATOR.— -J. A. 

steinmetz, 7.°.(; W. View St., Cermantown. 
Philadelphia, Pa. The object here is not to 
render the automobile supposedly inoperative, 
but to provide means which will have a de- 

terrent effect upon persons who would other- 
wise steal the car. Therefore the invention 
obscures, blinds or obliterates the serial number 
of a license tag or a part thereof, so that any 
person operating a car with the license so con- 
cealed would render himself liable to arrest. 

HANDLE BAR.— E. J. Cortines, care of 



« '"tines Supply Co, 1411 'ommerce Bt., I>» i 
la*. Tr*. Tbr invention relates more psrt1<- 
ularjy to bnrs for bicycles adjustable on the 

screw stem, so as to dispose the handles in dif- 
ferent positions. These bars have been made 
rigid with each other, and also have been made 
adjustable relatively to each other, adjustable 
connection being usually effected in the type of 
handle to which the invention relates, between 
the handle bar forging and a lateral arm on 
the stem. 

WASHING DEVICE FOR AUTOMOBILES 
AND oil ilk VEHICLES. — H. T. Ford, care 
of C. F. Ford, Central Valley. N. Y. This in- 
vention relates to a sponge holder which Is 
especially adapted to be used in connection 

with the DOZZle of ;i hose, whereby the sponge 
can be held directly in front of the nozzle so 
that the sponge will be kept constantly sup- 
plied with water during the washing operation, 
as in cleaning vehicle wheels, bodies and the 
like. 

SPRING CUSHION TIRE.— J. W. T. Ste- 
phens, 220 Whitney Bank Bld'g.. New Orleans, 
La. This invention has for its object the pro 
vision of a device of the character specified, 
having the resiliency of a pneumatic tire, but 
which may be manufactured at a much lower 
cost, and Wherein the danger from puncture and 
blow-outs is eliminated. 

TONGU" SUPPORTER.— H. A. Johnson 
and V. J. Pearson. Address M. II. Scott. At- 
torney, Piper City, 111. The device is adapted 
for supporting wagon tongues in horizontal 
position duri«g use, to relieve the necks of 
draft animals from the wnight of the tongue, 
and wherein the mechanism is so arranged that 
the tongue may be quickly released from the 
supporter or connected therewith to permit the 
free end of the tongue to rest upon the ground 
when the wagon is not in use. thus relieving 
the support of the weight of the tongue when 
the wagon is idle. 

RESILIENT WHEEL.— B. J. Dryer, care of 
C. D. Halsey. 15 Broad St., New York, N. Y. 
This invention relates to resilient wheels of 
the type having non-deformable treads and the 
resiliency is obtained by means of pneumatic 
balls positioned between the inner section of 
the wheel and the outer tread section so as to 
absorb the shocks and take up the thrust Im- 
parted to the tread section. 

ATTACHMENT FOR ENGINE S. — F. R. 
Ntbehg, 104 North 8th St., Lamar, Colo. This 
invention is an improvement in wheels for 
traction engines and the like, and has for an 
object to provide a mechanism in connection 




ATTACHMENT FOR ENGINES. 

with the usual drive wheel, for permitting the 
mud cleats usually used on the periphery of 
the wheel to be dispensed with, and win in 
the said mechanism is so arranged that it may 
be brought into and out of operative position 

whenever desired. 

Designs. 

DESIGN FOR CLOSED DRAWERS.— Anna 
HEUSER, care of W. Dumont. First National 

Bank Bld'g.. Paterson, N. J. In this ornamen- 
tal design for closed drawers, two views are 
shown, one a front elevation and the other a 
perspective representation of a pair of closed 
drawers. 



Note. — Copies of any of these patents will 
be furnished by the Scientific American for 
ten cents each. Please state the name of the 
patentee, title of the invention, and date of 
Ibis paper. 



We wish to call attention to the fact that 
we arc in a position to render competent ser 
vices in every branch of patent or trade-mark 
work. Our staff is composed of mechanical, 
electrical and chemical experts, thoroughly 
trained to prepare ami prosecute all patent 
applications, irrespective of the complex nature 
of the subject matter involved, or of the sp< 
cialized, technical, or scientific knowledge re 
quired therefor. 

We also have associates throughout the 
world, who assist in the prosecution of patent 
and trade-mark applications filed in all coun- 
tries foreign to the United States. 

Ml'NN & CO.. 

Patent Solicitor*, 
283 Broadway, 

New York. N. Y. 

Branch Office : 

625 F Street. N. W M 

Washington, D. C. 












52 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN 



July 10, 1915 



















i 

















rong Oil 



*>wer 




The oil may be too heavy 
in body. It then fails to 
maintain the proper oil film 
or to reach all friction 
points. Excess friction re- 

_ suits with its attendant 

I power loss. 

| Motorists are now finding 
| a safeguard against these 
| power losses in our con> 
1 plete Chart of Automobile 
■ Recommendations, printed, 
in part, at the right. 

This Chart has become a 
standard guide to correct 
lubrication. 




1 The body of the grade of 

■ Gargoyle Mobiloils specified 
for your car, in this Chart, 

■ insures the proper sealing of 
I the clearance between the 

■ pistons, piston rings and 
I cylinder walls. 

| The superior quality or lu- 

■ bricating efficiency of the oil 

■ specified — its ability to give 
1 full lubrication under the 
1 heat of service — is too well- 

■ known to need discussion. 

The power you develop 
on the hills when using the 
| correct grade of Gargoyle 
I Mobiloils is one of the 

■ strongest evidences of th 
1 oil's lubricating efficiency. 



Correct Lubrication 

Explanation: In the Chart below, the 
letter opposite the car indicates the grade 
of Gargoyle Mobiloils that should be used. 
For example, "A" means Gargoyle Mo- 
biloil •'A". "•Arc" means Gargoyle Mo- 
biloil "Arctic." etc. The recommendations 
cover all models of both pleasure and com- 
mercial vehicles unless otherwise noted. 




1-1 I 



Mobiloils 

A grade for each type of motor 

The four grades of Gargoyle Mobiloils, for 
gasoline motor lubrication, purified to re- 
move free carbon, are: 

Gargoyle Mobiloil "A" 

Gargoyle Mobiloil "B" 

Gargoyle Mobiloil "E" 

Gargoyle Mobiloil "Arctic" 

For Electric Vehicles use Gargoyle Mobil- 
oil "A" for motor and enclosed chains. 
For open chains and differential use 
Uargoyle Mobiloil "C/ 1 

Tn buying Gargoyle Mobiloils from your 
dealer, it is safest to purchase In original 
packages. Look for the red Gargoyle on the 
container. For information, kindly address 
any inquiry to our nearest office. 



MODEL OF 


1911 


1912 


1913 


1914 


1915 


CARS 


u 
6 

E 


ft 

— 

c 


i 


u 


b 


u 

•-• 

c 

• — 


& 




V 

B 

a 


5 

a 




J 


£ 


ifi 


£ 


3 


* 


1/3 


H 


•Ji 


> 


Abbott Detroit 


A 


Arc- 


A 


Arc. 


A 


Arc. 


Arc. 


Arc 


Arc. 


Arc. 


M (8 cyl) 


















A 

... 


A 


■t i J * 


Arc. 


Arc- 


Arc. 


Arc. 


ArcJArc 
A (Arc 


. ... 






A 


Arc. 


A 


Arc. 


A 


Arc 


... 


... * 


Appcrson 


Arc. 


Arc 


Arc. 


Arc 


Arc. 


Arc. 


Arc. 


Arc. 


Arc. 


... . 
Arc, 




A 


A 


A 


A 


A 


A 


A 


A 


A 


Arc. 


u (6cyl> 


. ■ 


• • 


. • . 


i 


... 


* * . 


Arc. 


Arc. 


Arc. 


Arc. 




A 


Arc. 


A 


Arc. 


A 


Arc. 


A 


Arc. 


A 


Arc. 


11 (4 cyi.) 


A 

A 


Arc 
K 


A 

A 


Arc. 

A 
















A 


A 


A 

A 


A 
Arc. 
Arc 


A 
Arc. 
Arc. 


A 

Arc 


11 ( Model C) I Ton 


M » 


*. 


+ . 


* i 


Buick 


A 


Arc. 


A 


Arc. 


A 


Arc. 


. a. ^ . 

Arc. 


Cadillac 


An 


Arc 


Arc. 


Arc. 


Arc. 


Arc. 


Arc. 


Arc 


. . . 






















Arc. 


Arc. 




A 


E 


A 


E 


A 


K 


Arc. 


Au- 


Ac 


Air. 


Com'! 


* * 
A 
A 


Arc 
A 


• • 
A 
A 


Arc. 
Arc. 


• a 

A 

A 


* * 




Arc 


A 


Arc 


\ 


Arc. 




A 


Arc. 


Arc. 


Arc. 


Arc. 


Arc 


A 

Arc 
R 


A 

Arc 
U 


Arc. 

Arc 
R 


A:. 
Arc 




M \ 


Chase (air),. 


B 


n 


}{ 


u 


B 


R 






MJ 


•^ 


mm 


mJ 


* ' 


Arc 


Arc. 


Arc 


a-# 
















• •»* t 


Chevrolet. . 


. ■ 


. . 


. ■ 


■ 


A 


A 


A 


Arc. 


Arc- 


Arc, 


Cole 


A Arv 


Arc. 


Arc. 


Arc. 


Arc 


Arc 


Arc 


Arc 


An 


- (8 cyl) 


t 


• 


■ 




. 


. t . 


i * • 


* • - 


A 


A 


Cunningham ... 


A 


A 


A 


A 


A 


A 


Arc 


Arc. 


Art . 




Dclaunay- Belleville . . 


B 


A 


B 


A 


B 


A 


B 


A 






Detroiter 


... 


. . . 


A 


Arc 


A 


Arc 


A 


A 


A 


Ire, 








* 












\it. 


\r. . 




















E K 


E. M. F 


Arc 

A 


Arc. 
Arc. 


Arc 
A 


Arc 
Arc. 
















Arc 


Arc. 


Arc. 


Ar.. 


Ar, 


Are. 




B 


A 


A 


A 


B 


A 


B 


A 


B 


A 




E 


E 






A 


Arc 

E 

Arc 












-.- . 




E 

A 


E 
Arc 


E 

A 


E 
Arc- 


E 
A 


E 
A 


E 

A 


E 
A 


Franklin 


Com'! 


B 


A 


A 


Arc 


A 


Arc. 


.... 


.... 


. 


* 

. a 




A 


E 


Arc. 


Arc 


Arc, 


Arc. 


4 t a 


. a . 


a t * 


. . a 


Coml 


A 


Arc. 


Arc. 


Arc. 


Arc. 


Arc 


A 

A 


A 

Arc 

A 

Arc. 


* 


. ■ 




Arc 


Arc 




A 


Arc 


A 


Arc. 


A 


Arc 


■ . * x. . 


( Model 6-6o).. 


# * 
.... 


* . * ^ 


• • 
» 


• • 
... 


. 1 * V . 

■ ■ 


* . 
Arc. 


... 
. . . . 


■ - 


Haynes 


A 


Arc 


A 


Art- 


A 


Are. 


A 


Arc 


A 


Arc. 




A 


Ait 


A 


Arc. 


A 


Arc 


Arc. 


Arc. 


Are 


Arc. 


Huprnobile 


• - * . 


. . . * 


. . . - 


- . . 4 


A. 


Arc. 


A 


Arc 


A 


■ 
Arc. 


'(Model 30) 


Arc. 


Arc 


Ave. 


Arc. 


Arc. 


Arc 


. 


. . . ■ 




.... 


I. H. C. <air) 


i 


4 


. 


. . - . 


B 


A 


"B 


A' 


li' 


A 












A 


A 


A 


A 


A 


A 




It 
A 


B 

Arc. 


B 
A 


A 
Arc. 


* • 


Interstate 


A 


Arc. 


A 


Arc. 


A 


Arc. 




A 


Arc. 


A 


Arc. 


A 


Arc. 


Arc. 


Arc. 


Arc 


A re. 
















A 
Arc. 


A 
Arc. 


A 

A 


Arc 


" Coni'l ... , 


. . 


. . * . 


Arc. 


Arc. 


Arc. 


Arc. 


. » ^ 
Arc. 


Kelly Springfield 


Arc 


Arc. 


Arc. 


Arc 


Arc 


Arc. 


A 


A 


A 


A 


King 


A 


E 


A 


E 


A 


E 


A 


A 


A 


Arc. 


" (8 cyl) 


« * 


. ■ . 


. • . 


» 


• . 


. . . 


■ 


■ 


Arc. 


Arc, 


Com I 




* ... 


. . 


. 


.... 




Arc. 


Are 


Are 


A n . 


Kissel Kar 


A 


Arc. 


A 


Arc. 


A 


Arc. 


A 


Arc. 


A 


Aw 


'■ Coru'l , . 


Arc. 


Arc. 


Arc 


Arc. 


Arc. 


Arc. 


A 


Arc. 


A 


An. 


" " (Model AS) 


. . . < 


■ 


• . . ■ 


. . . . 


. 


. . . 


A 


A 


A 


A 


Kline Kar 


Arc. 


Arc. 


Arc. 


Arc 


Arc 


. 


A 


Arc 


A 


Arc. 


XvNUA - * ...«•»*••» 


B 


A 


B 


A 


B 


A 


B 


A 


B 


A 


A. flV*. ».«..■ ■ a**. 


A 


A 


A 


A 


A 


A 


A 


A 


A 


Arc, 


;,.ird Stewart. , . . 


■ 


> > 


Arc. 


Arc 


Arc. 


Ar< 


Arc 


Arc. 


Arc Arc. 


Locomobile 


Are 


Arc 


Arc. 


Arc 


Arc 


An 


E 


E 


E 


E 


LotlCT , . . . 


Arc. 


Arc 


Arc. 


Arc. 


Arc 


Arc 


A 


Arc. 


... 


r ... 


Lyons Knight 


* 


... 


. 


• . . 






A 


A 


B 


A 


Mack 


A 


E 


E 


B 


E 


E 


A 


E 


A 


B 


11 (ModelS).. . 


< . . - 


. - . • 


- » . - 


. . * 


A 


A 


A 


A 


A 


A 


M.'tMOll 


A 


E 


A 


Arc- 


A 


Arc. 


Arc. 


Arc. 


Arc. 


Arc. 




A 

Arc. 


Arc 
Arc. 


A 

Arc. 


Arc 
Arc. 


A 

Arc 


Arc 

Arc. 


A 
.Arc. 


Arc- 
Arc 


A 
Arc. 


Arc. 
Arc. 


Maxwell 


Mercer 


A 


Arc. 


A 


Arc 


A 


Arc. 


A 


Arc 


A 


Arc. 


(.'."-70 Series). 


















Arc. 
A 

A 


An 


* 


B 


Arc 


A 


An 


A 


•V. 




Arc 


. * ■ v . 

A re. 


Mitchell 


A 


Arc 


A 


Arc 


A 


Arc 


* a 

A 


. * . .. . 
Arc 


Moitne 


A 


Arc. 


A 


Arc. 


A 


Arc. 


. . . 


- • 






" Knight . 














A 
A 


A 
A re 


A 

A,. 


A 
Arc. 




Arc. 


Arc 


Arc. 


Arc. 


Arc 


Arc 


" (6cyL) 




. . . * 




» ... 


... 


. 


Arc. 


Arc. 


Arc. 


Arc. 


National 


A 


A 


A 


A 


A 


A 


A 


A 


A 


Arc 


Oakland 


A 


Arc. 


A 


Arc 


A 


Arc 


Arc. 


Arc. 


Arc 


Arc. 




A 


Arc. 


A 


Arc 


Arc 


Arc 


Arc. 


Arc. 


Arc. 


Are 


Overland 


Arc 


Arc 


Arc 


Arc, 


Arc 


Arc. 


Arc. 


Arc. 


Arc 


Are 


Packard 


Arc. 


Arc 


Arc. 


Arc. 


Arc 


Arc 


A 


Arc. 


A 


Arc. 


Paige 


A 


Arc. 


A 


E 


A 


E 


A 


A 


A 


Ar, 


(6 cyl) 


• • . - 


.... 


. * « . 


. > ■ 


* 


, 


. 


... • 


Arc. 


Arc. 


Pathfinder 


» 


■ ■ 


- 




A 


.Arc. 


Arc. 


Arc. 


Arc 


Arc, 


Peerless 


Aix 


Arc. 


Arc. 


Arc. 


Arc. 


Arc 


Arc. 


Arc 


Arc 


Are. 


Pierce Arrow 


A 


Arc. 


A 


A re [Arc- 


Ar< 


Arc 


Arc, 


Arc. 


Arc. 


" Com'l.- 


Arc. 


Arc. 


Arc. 


-lArc. 


Arc. 


Arc 


Arc 


Arc. 


. 


1< pe Hartford 


Arc. 


Arc 


Arc. 


Arc Arc. 


Arc. 


Arc. 


Arc. 


. 


.... 




A 


Arc. 


A 


Arc 


A 


Ar. 


A 


Arc 


A 


Arc. 


Rambler. 


A 


Arc. 


Arc. 


Arc 


Arc 


Arc. 


. . * 


. 


. a 


* , . % . 


Regal 


A 


Arc 


Arc. 


Arc. 


Arc 


Arc 


Arc 


Arc! 


Arc. 


.. 




A 


Arc. 


A 


Arc. 


A 


Arc. 


A 


Arc 




Arc 


Reo 


A 


Arc. 


A 


Arc. 


A 


Arc. 


A 


A re 


A 


At, 


•^ r. v 


B 


Art- 


B 


Arc 


B 


Arc 


A 


Arc. 


A 


.Arc. 




A 


Arc. 


A 


Arc 


A 


Arc 


Arc. 


Arc, 


Arc. 


At 














. 


E 


E 


E 


E 




A 


R 


Arc 


Arc 


Arc 


Arc 


Arc 


\m* 


Arc. 
Arc. 
Arc. 


An 

An 

Arc. 




Arc 


Arc 


Arc, 


Arc 


i a . ** . 

Arc 


. 4 . V . 

Ar** 


Ar, 


* 1-J .- 

Arc. 

Arc. 


Speedwell 


A 


Arc. 


A 


Arc. 


Arc 


Arc 


Art 


Mead 


■ 


. t 


... 


. . * 


A 


Arc. 


U 


A 


IJ 


A 


Stearns 


A 


Arc 


A 


Arc. 


. . i 




. 




* . 




" Kni K ht 


... 


. 


A 


A 


A 


A 


B 


A 


B 


A 


M (Lights 






■ 




... 


■ . 






A 


An 


Stevens Duryea. 


Arc 


Arc. 


Arc 


Art 


Arc. 


Arc 


Arc 


Arc 


Arc. 


Arc. 


Stoddard- Diiv l un 


A 


A 


A 


A 


A 


A 




.... 


♦ 


. * a 


" Knight. 


- 




A 


A 


A 


A 




■ • 


. * 


I . . - 




A 


Arc 


Arc. 


Arc. 


A 


Arc. 


A 


Arc. 


Arc. 


\n . 


• JvUtZ . ■ a a ■ • • j ■*■ • . . 


• ■ 


. . • i 


Arc. 


Arc. 


Arc. 


Arc 


A 


A 


A 


A 


Velie (4 cyl.) 


A 


Arc. 


A 


Arc 


A 


Arc 


A 


Arc 


A 


Ar, 


" (6 cyl.) 


* 


- . . 


■ * 


a ■ . ■ 


. . . 


» 


Arc 


An 


Arc. 


Arc 


*• iiiitr ............ 


Arc- 


Arc 


Arc. 


Arc 


Arc. 


Arc 


Arc 


Arc 


A 


A 


*v nite 


Arc 


Arc. 


Arc. 


Arc. 


Arc. 


Arc. 


Arc 


Arc. 


Arc. 


Arc 


Willys Knight . . . 


■ 


... 


. 


- • 


. . * 


... • 


A 


A 


B 


A 


t •• Utility 


■ 


. . . 


.... 


■ * 


.... 


« • ■ ■ 


A 


Arc. 


Arc. 


Ar. 


Winton 


Arc. 


Arc. 


Arc. 


Arc 


Arc. 


Arc 


Arc 


Arc. 


Arc. 


An 



1 VACUUM OIL COMPANY, Rochester, N. Y., U. S. A 

Specialists in the manufacture of high-grade lubricants for 
every class of machinery. Obtainable everywhere in the world. 



DOMESTIC BRANCHES: 



Detroit 
Boston 



New York 
Chicago 



Philadelphia 
Indianapolis 



Minneapolis 
Pittsburgh 







Do you realize how often loss of power can be traced 
back to lubrication? | 

Suppose the oil is too light in body for your motor : | 

It then fails to seal -up the clearance between the 
pistons, piston rings and cylinder walls. Part of the com- 
pression and part of each explosion then escape down 
past the rings. The result is 
jj weakened power. I 

Or: 











Railroad Building Under and Over 
the Streets of New York 

(Continued from page. J/7.) 

the subway work extends far bolow the 
grillage it. is necessary i<> provide some 
form of support for the building during 
the period of construction. It was csjk'- 
cially necessary lo prevent this building 
from being disturbed in the least, because 

on the top floor are Located a series of very 
delicate relays which would be thrown out 

of operation by the slightest shifting of 

(lie building foundation. The method em- 
ployed is shown in Fig. 1, and is the in- 
vention of Mr. John F. O'Rourke. A pair 
of heavy steel girders, 7 feet deep and 35 
feet long, were placed each side of each 
column and supported on limber crib work. 
These girders carried two pairs of trans- 
verse I-beams, placed close against the 
base of the column, one pair inside and 
the other outside of the building. The con- 
crete at the foot of the column was then 
chipped away to expose the grillage beams. 
Steel straps were passed around the ex- 
posed end of these grillage beams and 
fastened to suspension rods hung from the 
transverse beams above. By means of 
heavy nuts engaging square cut threads 
on the susj tension rods, the straps were 
drawn up until the weight of the column 
was taken off the ground and carried on 
the girders. To prevent the straps from 
being cut by the edges of the grillage 
beams, half-round blocks were inserted 
under the beams, and because the grill- 
age beams were very closely spaced, it was 
necessary to stagger the suspension rods, 
as shown. By this means the telephone 
building is being supported on hanging 
foundations. 

Work in a Buried Stream. 

In the soft ground work undoubtedly 
the excavations through Canal Street and 
the crossing of the Hudson and Manhat- 
tan tubes at Christopher Street and the 
extension of Seventh Avenue, stand out 
as of chief interest, ('anal Street gets its 
name from the canal or stream that 
flowed out of the "Collect Pond" at Cen- 
ter and White Streets, emptying into the 
North River. It was anticipated that a 
great deal of trouble would be encoun- 
tered here. Broadway at Canal Street 
lies but ten feet above mean high water, 
while the excavation at this point had to 
be carried down 47 feet below the street 
surface in order to provide for passing the 
Canal Street tracks under the Broadway 
tracks. Water was encountered here al- 
most immediately, but proved to be only 
surface drainings retained by a layer of 
peat and clay which proved to be the bed 
of the old stream. After the peat and 
clay bed had been cut through, the water 
disappeared until the excavation had been 
carried down about 18 feet from the sur- 
face. From that point on the water 
proved increasingly troublesome as the 
excavation was carried farther down. 
Sumps were sunk at different points in 
the excavation and pumps installed to 
drain out the water. The greatest care 

had to be exercised to keep the water from 
carrying sand with it, and thus undermin- 
ing the surrounding buildings. Of course 
the excavation was lined with sheet pil- 
ing, as were sumps, and the intake ends 
of the pumps were surrounded with per- 
forated cylinders to serve as strainers. 
At one time twenty million gallons of wa- 
ter was being pumped out per day, enough 
to supply a city of 150,000 inhabitants 
with all the water it requires. Fortun- 
ately, the tine sand or quicksand which 
was most dreaded was encountered in 
seams or pockets, while most of the ex- 
cavation was in a coarse gravel. Of course 
the water stood at higher elevation outside 
of the sheet piling than inside. This pro- 
duced a considerable head of water, which 
at times would carry the sand under the 
sheeting. When the sand began to "boil" 
it had to be held down by bags of sand. 
Despite these trying conditions, the exca- 
vation has been completed and the entire 
subway structure at this point is rapidly 
Hearing completion. However, because of 
the head of water at this point, it is neces- 
sary to introduce large masses of concrete 
in the subway structure to act as ballast 



LEGAL NOTICES 



OVER 65 YEARS' 
EXPERIENCE 




Trade Marks 
Designs 
Copyrights &c. 



INVENTORS arc mviterl to communicate with 
Munn & Co.. 233 Broadway, New York, c 
625 F Street, Washington, D. C, in reznnl k, 
securing valid patent protection for their Inventions, 
Trade-Marks and Copyrights registered. Design 
Patents and Foreign Patents secured. 

A Free Opinion as to the probable patentability 

of an invention will be readily given to any invento) 
furnishing us with a model or sketch and a brief <le 
scription of the device in question. All communications 
are strictly confidential. Our Hand-Book on Patents 
will be sent free on request. 

Ours is the Oldest agency for securing patents; it 
was established over sixty-five years ago. 

All patents secured through us are described without 
cost to patentee in the Scientific American. 

MUNN & CO., 233 Broadway, New York 

Branch Office 625 F St.. Washington. D. C. 



Classified Advertisements 

Advertising In this column Is 76 cents a line. No 
less than four nor more than 12 lines accepted. Count 
seven words to the line- All orders must be accom- 
panied by a remittance. 



EXPERIMENTAL MACHINIST 

WILL DESIGN and build automatic machines 



also trying-out models of any mechanical device or 
appliance. Wide experience — satisfactory results at 
reasonable prices. "Machinist", Box 773. New York. 

FOR SALE 

THE WELLINGTON Visible Typewriter. Price 
$60 Cash. It is portable; has perfect alignment and 
durability. Write for catalog or call. The Williams 
Mfg. Co., 309 Broadway, New York. 

FOR SALE CHEAP 

NEW IDEAS. Money change handler machine. 
No short change or mistakes can be made. Can be 
used in stores, railroad stations, ferry houses, or 
where any quantity of small change is handled 
No reasonable offer refused. P. Bochenek. 9G Noble 
Street, Brooklyn, N. Y. 

PATENTS FOR SALE 

RARE OPPORTUNITY. Downs Automatic Con- 
troller, electro-magnetic, motor driven, two types. 1- 
circuit and 2-circuit; for electric locomotives, trolley 
cars and stationary motors. Particulars on request. 
G. B. Downs, 141 Broadway, Mauch Chunk, Pa. 



INQUIRY COLUMN 



READ THIS COLUMN CAREFULLY. You 
will find inquiries for certain classes of articles 
numbered in consecutive order. If you manufac- 
ture these goods write us at once and we will send 
you the name and address of the party desiring 
the information. There is no charge for this ser- 
vice. In every case it is necessary to give the number 
of the inquiry. Where manufacturers do not re- 
spond promptly the inquiry may be repeated. 

Munn 8c Co.. Inc. 



Shi 



Inquiry No. 9h J//. Wanted the name and ad&r; __ 
of a manufacturer of special pins. 1/16 of an inch in 
diameter and % of an inch long, the pins to be made 
of bone. 

Inquiry No. 91*35. Wanted the name and address 
of a manufacturer who can furnish grinding machin 
for the hollow grinding and finishing of razors. Up- 
to-date machines wanted. 

Inquiry No. 94$6. Wanted the name and address 
of a manufacturer of rat traps having a receptacle 
attached into which the rat drops and drowns. 

Inquiry No. 9^37. Wanted the name and address 
of a concern that can make an oil or grease gun. 
West preferred. Must be able to make in quantities 
of 10,000. 

Inquiry No. 9J+3S. Wanted the name and address 
of a manufacturer of light aluminium sheets, small 
tubing, rods and wire, also aluminium solder. 

Inquiry No. 91*39. Wanted the name and address 
of a manufacturer of a knitting machine which was 
on the market some years ago. The name of the 
machine was the Bickford Machine. It was a hand 
knitting machine, weighing about 15 pounds. 

Inquiry No. 9////0. Wanted the name and address 
of a concern selling Dr. Young's E-Z Sanitary Belt. 

Inquiry No. 9JfJt2. Wanted the name and address 
of a manufacturer of a machine for cutting skeins of 
cotton and wrapping each bundle around the middle 
with wire. A machine of some such kind is used in 
the brush trade for wiring and cutting to length the 
bundles of bristles for paint brushes. 

Inquiry No. 9^3. Wanted the name and address 
of manufacturers of fuel oil burners and fire wall 
equipment, suitable for a maximum quantity of water 
evaporation in a locomotive firebox of the' following 
dimensions: 2}^ between door and due sheet, 3' be- 
tween grate level and crown sheet, 3' between side 
walls. 

Inquiry No. 9hhh- Wanted the name and address 
of a manufacturer or patentee of a glass pn^, r\ Ing jar 
made for use with air pumps for creating a vacuum. 

Inquiry No. 9^J^5. Wanted the name and address 
of a manufacturer who can make a combination 
pencil holder and point protector. 

Inquiry No. 91^6. Wanted the name and address 
of a manufacturer who can supply machinery for auto- 
matically wrapping cigars in thin Imported tissue 
paper having the ends tightly w r ound and curled. 
Would consider purchase of machines or patent rights. 

Inquiry No. 941*7. Wanted to buy patented article, 
which is needed in every home, with a possible view 
to manufacturing and distributing. 

Inquiry No. 91*1*8. Wanted to get in touch with 
manufacturers who can make small gasoline motors 
and parts thereof. Must be able to handle consid- 
erable orders with expedition. 

Inquiry No. 91*1*9. Wanted the name and address 
of a manufacturer who is prepared to build a new 
and very simple stationary engine with or without 
gas producer. 

Inquiry No. 91*50. Wanted the name and address 
of a manufacturer who can build a light simple mo- 
tor for light automobiles and for portable farm work. 

Inquiry No. 91*51. Wanted the name and address of 
a manufacturer of machinery for making egg albumen. 



Concrete 



Building Block Machines. 

FANCY MOLDS. 

Damp - Proofings, Etc. 

CATALOGUE FREE 
CONCRETE MACHINERY CO., 7 Market St., St. Louii, Mo. 



July 10, 1915 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN 



53 



and hold the structure from floating njt 
through the street surface. 

The section eastward on Canal Street 
is new being excavated, and the point of 
particular interest is where it crosses un- 
der the existing subway at Lafayette 

Street, and the Centre Street loop. In 
the latter case it had been anticipated that 

a subway would be built on Canal Street 
and an underground bridge had previously 
been built at this crossing, so that the ex- 
cavation could he carried on under the 
Centre Street loop without any difficulty. 
But at Lafayette Street no sneh provision 
had been made and the method of proced- 
ure was rendered very difficult for fear 
of disturbing the traffic in the existing 
subway above. 

Along Canal Street a new method of 
building a retaining wall has been in use. 
Instead of using sheet piling at each side 
of the excavation and then building the 
concrete wall inside of this protection, the 
wall was started from the surface and 
built down. This method is the inven- 
tion of Mr. .7. B. Goldsb.orough and is 
shown in Figs. 3 and 4. The work is car- 




Fig. 3. — Building a retaining wall 
from the surface down. 




Fig. 4. 



Chamfered boards with which 
the pits are lined. 



ried down in a set of pits which are alter- 
nately pushed forward and in such a way 
that each piece interlocks with the work 
to follow. 

The pits are lined with boards that are 
chamfered at the upper and lower edges, 
as shown in Fig. 4, so that earth can be 
tilled in through the slots formed by the 
chamfered edges and packed in behind 
the boards. This system has been used 
successfully to carry down building foun- 
dations to rock without disturbing the cel- 
lars or basements of the buildings. 

The drawing on pages -40 and 47 gives 
some idea of the appearance of the work 
on Canal Street when completed. It shows 
that the station for local tracks will be 
located on Broadway, while the express 
tracks will be depressed and will turn 
eastward under the northbound local track 
to a station on Canal Street; thence they 
will continue across town and over the 
-Manhattan Bridge to Brooklyn. The Canal 
Street station will have direct connection 
with the Centre Street station, while there 
will also be stairways leading up to the 
Lafayette Street subway. There will be 
a practically continuous underground side- 
walk from Broadway to Centre Street on 
each side of the subway. 

Crossing the McAdoo Tubes. 

The other interesting soft, ground work 

to which we have referred is to be found 

t Christopher Street and tla- extension 
Of Seventh Avenue. The tubes of the Hud- 
son and Manhattan Eailroad, popularly 

known as the McAdoo tubes, run rather 

'lose to the surface here and there is 

barely tOOID for the new subway to pa.ss 



between them and the street. The tubes 
are virtually floating in very soft material, 
and it would be unsafe to rest the sub- 
way directly upon them. Instead of that 
the structure will be supported on girders, 
spanning the tubes and resting on grillage 
beams embedded in concrete as shown in 
Fig. 2. The concrete forms a saddle over 
the tubes, and owing to the treacherous 
nature of the soil, it is being laid in nar- 
row trenches, a slice at a time, to prevent 
disturbing the tubes. 

(To be continued.) 



An Electric Rail Grinder 

(Concluded from page Jf9.) 

"cuts" in the rail so that more harm may 
be done to rails than if they were left 
alone. When one considers that much of 
the grinding must not exceed l/100th part 
of an inch, it must be admitted that such 
a delicate operation should be done only 
under good light conditions. 

This electric rail grinder utilizes the 
human sense of touch in graduating the 
grinding force of the emery wheel. The 
depth of the "cut" is regulated by the 
pressure of the operator's hands on the 
shafts, and he is made unconsciously 
aware of the depth of the "cut" by the 
vibrations conducted along the arms of 
the machine. The successful "cut" should 

i 

die out imperceptibly about fifteen to 
eighteen inches away from the joint, on 
either side. 

The machine has a simple framework 
of ash providing a seating at one end for 
the motor. As the motor is close to it 
work, a low horse-power is sufficient t<> 
drive the grinding wheel. The motor is 
supplied with current from the overhead 
wire. A starter box is placed between 
the two arms, and a switch is located near 
the right handle. 

There is an automatic "cut-out" used 

■ 

in connection with the starter so arranged 
that should the operator attempt to take 
a deeper "rut" than is advisable, the cur- 
rent is automatically cut off and the ma- 
chine stopped. The machine will grind 
out corrugations equally as well as defec- 
tive joints, and will smooth ten to iifteen 
feet an hour, a -cording to depth and free- 
dom from interruption. By a slight tilt- 
ing of the machine one side of the rail 
can be ground more than the other if re- 
quired. 



Stealing Bases in Baseball as a 
Psychologist Sees It 

By Arthur Macdonald 

rpilE great thing in stealing bases is to 
1 get a good lead, otherwise, according 
to Kling, it is not wise to steal. Some 
players seem to have a knack, or instinct, 
in getting a lead. For the fastest run- 
ners do not always steal the most bases. 
Others study the pitcher to find if there 
be any preliminary movement of any part 
of the body which is a sure sign he is 
going to pitch. In some pitchers a certain 
peculiar movement of the shoulders may 
serve as a tip. Cobb makes it a point to 
observe the direction the baseman looks 
so as to slide in on the side opposite from 
which the ball comes. It is well also to 
observe the elevation of the baseman's 
hands, so as to know whether the ball is 
coming high or low. 

Usually there are not more than two 
men on a team who excel as base runners. 

It is easier to put out a good base run- 
ner than it is to catch a poor one who 
never can be coaxed far off the bag. But 
good base stealing often causes fielders to 
make errors. 

The Double and Delayed Steal— With 
two out a man on first should try to steal 
second, so that he can score on a hit. The 
double steal is almost always attempted 
when runners are on first and third and 
two are out. 

The delayed steal is where a runner is 
on second and another on third and the 
ball is hit to shortstop, who throws home 
and puts out the man coming from third, 
but the man on second rushes close after 
the man running home, and slides in front 
of the plate before the catcher can recover 
and touch him after touching out the first 
runner. 



WW 



-unless my health should 
fail me" 

AND try as you will, sometimes you cannot 
r\^ banish that nameless dread of ill-health. For 
already the endless worries and the overwork 
and insistent pressure of business seem to be telling 
on you. And when you think of all that you hope 
to do for that boy of yours or for your family, you 
cannot help but wonder: 'Will my health last? ,, 

We cannot stay the march of time, but we can 
wisely aid nature to repair the ravages of years of toil. 
And Sanatogen, true food-tonic, has splendidly ful- 
filled its mission of infusing new vigor and endurance 
and reserve force into those who, perhaps like your- 
self, have undermined their health. 

Richard Le GaUienne, the distineuished poet-author, writes: 

"I have made two extended trials of your Sanatojren durine periods of 
mental fatigue, and each lime derived great benefit from its use. Several 
times I have found myself wondering why I was feeling more 'fit' and 
then remembered that I was talcing Sanatogen." 






Mme. Olive Schreiner, the gifted writer, states: 

"Nothing that I have taken for years has given me such a sense of vigor 
as Sanatogen. 11 

And so scores upon scores of other famous 
people have testified in grateful letters to the 
good that Sanatogen has done them. But 
even more convincing is the testimony of 21,- 
000 doctors who, after watching countless 
cases, have endorsed Sanatogen in terms of 
sincere praise. And with that weight of evi- 
dence in mind, how long will you postpone 
knowing how Sanatogen protects your health. 

Sanatogen is sold by good druggists every- 
where, in three sizes, 

from $1.00. 

I 

Grand Prize. ^^~ 

International Congress of 
Medicine, London, 1913 



' 



M 






X 



M 



I 



V 



/* 



\ 









*s - 



Sena 



ENDORSED BY OVER 21,000 PHYSICIANS 



for Elbert Hubbard's 

manner and filled with 
health and contentment. 



new book — "Health in the Making.' __ M „„ 

his shrewd philosophy, together with capital advice on Sanatogen, 
It is FREE. Tear this off as a reminder to address 
THE BAUER CHEMICAL CO., 28-G Irving Place, New York. 



M\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\^ 



Two-inch saw tooth 
roof built with- 
out forma 






Over 71.000 sq. ft. of 
Self-Sentering used 
on this Omaha 
Stock Yard 
Job 



b^ 



»\\\\\\\\\\ v 



Finishinp'a section 

of Self-S entering 

roof 



•*>.; 



.*• 



«N 



* 



X 



9- ffi 



V ftr %'* 



Self- 

Sentering Saves 

Money and Space in 

Every Wall, Floor, Roof 



W 



Self-Sentering does away with costly forms and clumsy 
construction. It is combined centering and reinforcing. 




Pat. 

March 3 
1014 



[You'll Know It by Its Diamond Mesh] 



Other 

Patents 

Pending 



Self-Sentering comes at the right place in the slab to insure maximum 
carrying strength. Decreased thickness, as compared with other methods, 
means lighter weight, more space, less cost. 

Makes concrete economically available for all building construction. 
Get facts, proofs, fire test reports, plans, advice. All are in our 112-page 

New ' 'Fireproof ing Handbook' '-FREE 

Send for this book and tell us your special needs. Or give us your archi- 
tect s name and we will co-operate with him. But read the book your- 
self. Send for a copy for your own use— today. 

THE GENERAL FIREPROOFING COMPANY 

2103 Logan Avenue Youngstown, Ohio 

Makers also of Herrinabone, the rigid metal lath 





Trade Mark 

Reg. i . s. p»t '>ff. 



■ 



r>i 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN 



July 10, 191/ 







Copyright U. S. A. 1915. by 
The B.V.D. Ctmpany. 




"Welcome To Camp B.V.D." 

irst they named it "Camp Comfort/' but they've 
changed it to "Camp B.V. D. ", because nothing 
Is up the thought of Summer Comfort so instantly 
B.V.D. It's the Underwear of red-blooded, 
right-living men who find clean fun in keen sport. 

» 

You — welcome to Camp B.V. D. even though you're desk-bound 
and town-chained! 
summer long. 



as 



Wear e __ _ v 

It won't bind or irritate. It lets the air at 
your body. It wears long and washes fine. You are sure of 
its quality of material, integrity of make and true-to-size fit. 

On every B.V. D. Undergarment is sewed This Red Woven Label 



B.V.D. Union Suits 
(Pat. U.S. A. 4-30-07) 
$1.00, $1.50, $2.00, 
$3.00 and $5.00 the Suit. 



M ADE FOR TH E 
BEST RETAiL TRADE 



B.V. D. Coat Cut Under- 
shirts and Knee Length 
Drawers, 50c, 75c, $1.00, 
and $1.50 the Garment. 



(Trade Mark Rtg. U.S. Pat. Off. and Ftrtign Countriti) 

Firmly insist upon seeing this label and firmly 
refuse to take any Athletic Underwear without it. 

The B.V. D. Company, New York 

London Selling Agency, 66, Aldermanbury, E. C 



LEARN TO BE A WATCHMAKER 

Bradley Polytechnic Institute — Horological Department 



Formerly Vnr- 
IJo 'ological 

hi Hit tr 




Peoria, Illinois 

I aire fit B"d Hesl Wufcli School 
III America 

(7'/*m tut ire building used txclit- 
tivt'ty for this wort") 

We teach Watch Work, Jewelry, 
Engraving, Clock Work, Optft 
Tuition reasonable. Board aixl 
rooms near school at moderate rntttS. 
Send tor Catalog of Information. 



COMFORT SELF-HEATING 
SMOOTHING IRON 

5 hours on one filling at cost of two 
cents. Two points. Both ends are 
front ends. Quick lighting, self- 
cieaning and perfect regulation of 
heat. Built like a watch. Weighs 

6 pounds net. Guaranteed safe and 
satisfactory. Prhe $3.75 each, 
from your local dealer, or direct by 
prepaid parcels post. Order todav 

NATIONAL STAMPING & ELECTRIC WORKS 

Dept.54, CIIICAUO, ILL. 





Buy Motors Direct 



Why pay excessive dealer prices 

when we furnish you just as high 
grade motors and practically 

Save Half 

what the dealer aaka? We are 
- manufacturers, not jobbery. Wo 
ask but one email profit. Our lino 
embodies the famous American 
rowboat and canoe motors as 
described in catalog "B;"also 
marine motors from 2 to 30 
II. P., one to four cylinders, 
described in catalog "A. 



unit iiuv<i «»* - — I tit H *»• 

State which book you want. 
They're free, (jet our prices. 

AMERICAN ENGINE CO. 
611 Boston St., Detroit, Mich. 



> I 



$29.95 



for farm, ranch, shop, to pump, saw, 
excavate, hoist, irrigate, can be 
had in Galloway enirtnes from 1 1-2 
to 16 h. p. oJI styles. 200,000 cus- 
'f\r tomers testify to quality. 
UK Prices from 1-3 to 1-2 1 
JZZ what's usually asked. Low" 
\y* freight. Wm. Galloway Co. 
H p^ Box 1985 Waterloo. Iowa. 



GALLOWAY 




■•> 






PATENTS 



WE take this opportunity to call attention to the fact that 
our comprehensive practice includes not only the securing of 
the registration of trade-marks, but embraces as well the 
obtaining of Letters Patent in the United States, and all countries 
foreign thereto. 

Numbered among our clients are some of the most successful 
inventors in the United States. Our endeavors are always directed 
to the securing of Letters Patent which will protect the inventions of 
our clients as broadly and adequately as possible. A copy of our 
Hand Book on Patents, in which this phase of our practice is fully 
discussed, will be mailed to any address on application. We shall 
be pleased to give our unbiased, free opinion as to the probable pat- 
entability of any invention, provided a sketch and a description dis- 
closing the same are sent to us. A distinct advantage possessed by 
our clients is found in the free notice which each patent taken out 
through our office receives in the "Scientific American." 

MUNN & CO., Solicitors of Patents and Trade Marks 



233 Broadway, New York 

(Woolworth Building) 



625 F Street, Washington, D. C 



Meeting Third Base. A runner le on 

second and a fly bnll is hit to *hort right 

Held. The runner should feign an attempt 
i<> gel to third. If the fielder, getting the 
ball, throws to third there Is time to gel 
back to second, but if the ball is thrown 
to second, the runner must break for third, 
and he will generally get there safely. 

One great advantage of stealing third is 

that the runner can seen- on a long fly. It 
is doubtful, however, if he should attempt 
to steal third when no one is out (of 
course not when two are out), for he is 
nearly as well off on second, from which 
he may score on a hit. Probably the best 
time to steal third is when only one man 
is out. 

Cobb maintains it is easier to steal third 
than second, because of the great lead one 
can get from second. 

Basemen. — A celebrated first baseman 
says that he studies the batter and figures 
out where he will probably knock the ball, 
and from whom he will receive the throw. 
The first baseman can help to stop bunts 
by standing close to his base and letting 
the catcher run to his right. 

The third baseman is liable to be 
charged with many errors owing to the 
distance he must throw to third base. Sec- 
ond is the most strategic of bases. 

When a man tries to make a home run 
on a long hit, the basemen stand on the 
bags to make him run as far outside them 
as possible, so that he will lose time. 

Base runners caught napping may be 
regarded as runs killed. 

Plays and Tricks. — It is probably true 
that there is more elation from a smart 
trick than a great catch. While all plays 
and tricks are similar to experts, the main 
point is to utilize them when not expected. 
For the unexpected wins games, especially 
between teams closely matched, and plays 
and tricks afford the best chances Cor this. 

The Bluff Bunt.— One of these plays is 
the bluff bunt which is used as a substi- 
tute for the sacrifice hit to advance run- 
ners, especially from second to third base. 
It is employed when a sacrifice bunt is 
called for. With runners on second and 
first, or on second with none out, the best 
play, according to all authorities, is tj 
sacrifice. The idea is to advance the run- 
ners without the loss of a man at the ex- 
pense of only one strike. The batter pre- 
tends to want to bunt, but misses the ball 
purposely, and shoves his body over the 
plate so as to interfere slightly with the 
catcher's vision. The third baseman, ex- 
pecting a bunt, runs forward rapidly, leav- 
ing his base unguarded. The runner on 
second is to slide in at third before the 
baseman can return to his base; as he is 
compelled to run backwards, he must 
touch blindly at the runner, and chances 
of a muff are increased. To defeat this 
play, let the shortstop cover third base. 
The bluff bunt can assist the delayed steal, 
but it hampers the catcher in an unfair 
manner, it is said. This is, however, a 
difficult point to decide. 

A Rapid Play. — A rapid play made by 

second baseman Evers was where runners 
were on first and third, one out, and a run 
badly needed in the ninth inning. The 
batter hit sharply to second base. Evers 
took the ball on the first bound and made 
a motion to hurl it to the home plate. The 
play was so fast that the runner on third 
ran back to his base. Evers realizing that 
a double play was possible, touched the 

runner from first and then ran to first and 
put the batter out. 

A Trick Play. — Here is a trick play, 
where a swift base runner was on third, 
another on first who runs to second, but 
the catcher refuses to throw to second. 
Then the runner on second at the pitching 
of the next ball starts back to first base, 
and the catcher, supposing that the run- 
ner thought there were three out and was 
going to the bench, threw down to first. 

But in the meantime, the runner on third, 

with the motion of the pitcher, had rushed 
for home. The first baseman seeing this 
threw at once to home before touching the 
man running back to first, but it was too 

late, and the runner rested on first once 

more; but a run had been scored. 

A Fine Play. — A tine play is where a 
man was on third and the batter drove a 
hard one to the pitcher. The runner on 



third, :it the erach <>f the bat, started for 

home, but seeing he would get out If he 

continued, stopped still on the base line 

This forced the pitcher fo come ever to 
touch him. The runner waited until the 
pitcher was about to put the ball upon 
him, when he jumped away, and dashed 
for home and made it. The point was m 
getting the pitcher on the base line, so thai 
when he threw to the catcher he had to 
throw on the side of the runner, and this 
made a bad throw. 

An Intricate Play.— It is the ninth in- 
ning, score 4 to 2 in favor of team in the 
field. The opposition has runners on first 
and third, with one out. A hall is hit to 
the outfield. The fielder may figure to 
throw the ball home and get the runner 
farthest advanced out. There will then be 
two out, but the runner from first may ad- 
vance on the throw to second and be in 
position to score on a base hit. The fielder. 
however, can throw to second on a chance 
t<> get the runner from first. The score 
would be 4 to 3, and if the runner were 
held in first, there would be a chance for 
a double play and winning the game. 

Plays to Retire Runner on Third. — A 
runner on third and the ball is hit to the 
shortstop, who makes a motion to throw 
to first, but instead hurls it to third, get- 
ting the runner out, for he is liable to take 
a big lead off his base. Another way to 
put the man on third out, when far off the 
bag, is for the catcher to throw to the 
third baseman high, who purposely lets 
the ball go by. But the shortstop is back 
of him to get the ball and throw it home. 

The Trap Fly Play.— The trap fly play 
is where runners are on first and second, 
and an outfielder coming in close for a fly 
(the runners holding their bases) instead 
of catching it, purposely takes it on the 
short bound, and throws to second, forc- 
ing the man on first out, and the man on 
second is caught between second and third. 
It is a difficult, play and not often used. 

Play When Weak Batters are Cominy 
Up. — Runners are on second and third, 
none out, and weak batters are coming up. 
An easy grounder goes to shortstop (play- 
ing in), who could put the man out run- 
ning to first, but he holds the ball pur- 
posely to have three men on bases. The 
next batter sends a roller to second base- 
man, who immediately throws it home 
(one out), the catcher sends it to first 
(two out). In the meantime, the man on 
second is on his way to home, where he is 
caught (three out) by throw of first base- 
man back to home. In general, when the 
bases are filled the chances for double 
plays are increased. 

To Stop Hit an<l Run Play. — A good 
time for the hit and run play is when 
there are two balls and one strike on the 
batter, unless the pitcher has had bad con- 
trol. In order to stop the hit and run play, 
when the batter knocks a fly to outfield, 
the base runner hearing the crack of the 
bat must judge from actions of the fielders 
what is happening. The shortstop and 
second baseman should go through all the 
motions of expecting to stop a grounder or 
drive after a hit. The runner, thus made 
to think that the ball has gone through * 
the infield, rushes down to second in order 
to avoid being forced out. — Abstracted 
from American Physical Education Re- 

ricic. 

Making Gas Tubing Out of Glue 

SUCCESSFUL attempts have recently 
been made to manufacture a substitute 
for rubber tubing out of masses of solidi- 
fied glue. These tubes, whose trade name 
is "Sonjatin," are even better than those 
of rubber for certain purposes, according 
to Tcchnische Monatshcffc (Berlin, April 
10th), since they are more impervious to 
gases and more resistant to heat. It is 
also claimed that they do not grow rotten 
so quickly as rubber, and that when In- 
cased in a suitable envelope they will 
wit list and high pressure. 

Moreover, they are very cheap, gas 
tubes of the new material costing only 60 
pfennig per meter. The inventor is Prof*. 

.1. Traube, and he states that they are 

peculiarly suited for conductors of petrol- 
eum and gasoline as well as gases. How- 
ever, they are attacked by water, which 
obviously limits their uses. 






July 10, 1915 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN 



55 









A 






I 



\ 






Advertising 
Classified 



LATHES AND SMALL TOOLS 

** CT A P " Footand Power 
O 1 r\I\ Screw Cutting 

Automatic I ATLII7C 
Cross Feed Li/\ I 11 LO 

For Fine, Accurate Work 

Send for Catalogue B 

SENECA FALLS MFG. CO. 

695 Water Street 
Seneca Falls. N. Y.. U. S. A. 

The " BARNES " Positive Feed 

Upright Drills 





10 to 50-inch Swing 
Send for Drill Catalogue 



<^A6? 



IS 



&AVCb, 



W. F. & Jno. Barnes Co. 

Established 1872 
1999 Ruby Street Rockford. Illinois 

GROBET SWISS FILES 

Are the standard or excellence In 
flies, and have been for over H)0 
years* We send postpaid as an in- 
troducer is nirs especially adapted 
lor tool makers and machinists on 
receipt of $5,00 This is a chance to get a set of 
(lies you'll aporeciat nd we'll get future orders. 

MONTGOMERY & CO. 

109 Fulton Street New York City 




WELL 



DRILLING 
PAYS 



WELL 



iiivn a machine of your own. Cash or easy 
terras. Many styles and sizes for all purposes. 

Write for Circular. 

WILLIAMS BROS., 434 W. State St., Ithaca, N.Y. 



The Wrench of a Thousand Sizes 

Dnlrervft] Adju*ituM<- Wrench — 

. -v tiozen toola In one. Instantly 

" adjusted to L'ri|i i f all 

si/es and shapes. Indispensable 

for the Mechanic Chauffeur and Cor Household purposes. 

Fr our dealer 9 or fnim . fi ■ stoata. Lm Ipenti wanttd. 

THE COLYT T LABORATORIES, 569 West Washington St. Xhica go, 111. 

SPECIAL MACHINERY 




NOVELTIES & PATENTED ARTICLES 

MANUFACTURED BY CONTRACT. PUNCHING DIES. 
LIGHT AUTOMOBILE STAMPINGS 

E KONIGSLOW STAMPING & TOOL WORKS, CLEVELAND. 0. 



Models and Experimental Work 

INVENTIONS DEVELOPED 
SPECIAL MACHINERY . . . 

E. V. BAILLARD CO., 24 Frankfort St., N. Y. 



LEARN WATCHMAKING 

and become independent. Refined, profitable labor. 
Good-Paying Positions Secured. Competent men al- 
ways in demand. Easy to learn; money earned 
while studying. Write for our Catalogue. Address 
St. Louis Watchmaking School Dep't 6. St. Louis, Mo. 



DIES AND TOOLS 

Model and Experimental work. Light Metal Stamping:. 

Manufacturers of Specialties. Polishing and Plating:. 



SEND FOR ESTIMATES 



B. A. D. F. CO., Inc., 110-120 S. Church St. Schenectady, N. Y. 

MASON'S NEW PAT. WHIP HOIST 

for Outrigger hoists. Faster than Elevators, and hoist 
direct from teams. Saves handling at less expense 

Manufactured by VOLNEY W. MASON & CO., Inc. 

Providence, R. L, U. S. A, 

Valuable Books of Instruction and Reference 

Scientific American Cyclopedia of Formulae — Concrete Pottery 

..i.-i ' ■ -inieti Furniture—- nttfk □ Reference Book — 

i ■ <...■ -Handy Man'.-- Workshop and Ln 

MUNN & CO., Inc., Publishers, Woolworth Bid*., New York 



<:tll'lliilliHllhlllllllHIIIIIIIMIlllllllMIIIIIIIIMIIIlMII1iltlMNU1)lllllUlllMli|llllllltH1l! lllllllllltl/tMllll MllilMf Ulin 













F you re going to 
travel this year 
most people do — you 11 
find a great deal or in- 
teresting information 
in the Travel Depart- 
ment, which is a reg- 
ular feature of the first 

and third issues of each 









mo 



nth 



in 



Leslies 

Illustrated Weekly Newspaper 















At all News-stands, 10c. Or 
send $5. to Leslie's, 225 Fifth 
Avenue, New York, ror a 

' 1 " 

years subscription. 






■ 



NEW HOOKS, ETC. 

The Principles of Fruit Growing. With 

Applications to Practice. By L. II. 

Bailey. New York: The Macmilian 
Company, 1915. 8vo.; 432 pp.; illus- 
trated. Price, $1.75. 

In its fcwentiel h edit ion t his well-known i real ise 

comes to us as practically a new work. It has 

been re-arranged, n el and largely re-written 
The fullness of those 20 years has brought to the 
fruit-grower a riper know lodge, ( iarden pests 

have been subjected to scientific Investigation, 
and the present edition embodies the results of 

that labor. Fertilization, and protection against 
frost, ai Iso subjects thai receive the considera- 
tion their importance demands. The work sum- 
marizes the best modern practice. It con- 
siders location and climate, the tilling and en- 
riching of the land, the plants and the planting, 

the lay-out of the orchard and its subsequent can 

accidents and Injuries to the trees and fruit, and 

spraying. The work does nol stop a1 successful 

cultivation, however, but adds a chapter on the 

har\ est Ing and marketing Of the fruit . This 
includes grading and packing, farm packing- 
houses and appliances, and the storage of fruits 
on the farm. 



Motion of Liquids. Bv Lieut.-Col. K. De 
Villamil. R. Eng. (Ret.) New York 
Spon & Chamberlain, L914. 8vo.; 210 

pp.; 86 illustrations; 30 tables. Price, 
$2,50. 

If Kiabouchinsky fulfills his promise to repeal 
the experiments of those neglected, almost for- 
gotten investigators, Dubuat and Duchemin, \\< 

may look for a new impetus toward the solution 

of the problems presented by immersed bodies; 
for there can be little doubt thai the former 

anticipated Bessel by some 10 years, while the 

latter is warmly praised by both Langley and 
Zahm. Lieut -rol. I )e Villamil. in this thought- 
ful work on the "Motion of Liquids/ 1 vindicates 
cerl Bin of t he experiments and conclusions of 

Dubuat and Duchemin, and applies these con- 
clusions to definite instances of resistance. He 
finds that, although neither of the investigators 
in question can have known of what we term the 
conservation of energy, yet when their experi- 
ments are examined from the modern viewpoint 
it is found that the energy is duly accounted for. 
Hence he has confidence in the general accuracy 
of their conclusions. In this interesting account 
of his own experiments the author confines him- 
self chiefly to flat plates, so that the resistance of 
viscosity may be so negligible as not to complicate 
the problem. Some new subjects are Introduced, 
such as the comparison of static with non static 

liquids, leading to deductions which may vindicate 
Dubuat's Paradox; and in the chapter on "nega- 
tive resistance" he attempts to demonstrate that 
viscosity may actually cause a decrease in the 
resistance of a body moving in fluid. 

Railroads. Finance and Organization. 
By William Z. Ripley, Ph.D., Nathaniel 
Ropes Professor of Economics in Har- 
vard University. New York: Longmans, 
Green & Co., 1915. 8vo.; 638 pp.; with 
29 maps and diagrams. Price, $3 net. 

In throwing a network of rails over our con- 
tinent, weighty physical and fiscal problems have 
been encountered and solved, and no less weighty 
questions of legal and moral rights have been 
created. At the present moment a most difficult 
situation obtains, due to several factors, of which 
past corporate dishonesty and present public 
ignorance are perhaps the most apparent. Private 
interest has been forced to yield itself to public 
control, and sweeping adjustments and rehabilita- 
tions have to be carried out under decidedly 
adverse conditions. Few men are more capable 
of filming the old history and the new problems 
than Prof. Ripley. The photographic sharpness 

of his descriptions awakens our faculties to a 
corresponding enlightenment. He discloses the 
history, the secrets, and the present status of 
constructive finance, of capital and capitaliza- 
tion, of securities, of speculation, and of stock- 
watering; he explains state regulation of security 
sues, considers the determination of reasonable 
rates, and discusses physical valuation. His 

attitude is impartial, his evidence Impressive, and 

his arguments sound. Always his confident 

penstrokes go to the building of definite concep- 
tions. The work should be widely read, as should 
its companion volume, on "Rates and Regulation/' 

Profitable Vocations for Boys. By E. 
W. Weaver, Pd.M., and J. Frank Byler, 
Ph.D. New York: The A. S. Barnes 
Company, 1915. 12mo.; 283 pp. Price, 
SI net. 

This is a splendid book to place in the hands of 
parents, ministers, educators, and even in the 
hands of the boy himself. It summarizes much 
reliable information regarding admission to the 

gainful occupations. It does not. however leave 

the matter then*, but adds interesting suggestions 
as to methods of advancement. It tabulates the 
remuneration that may reasonably be expected 
from the various pur-suits, and endeavors to in- 
duce an analytic attitude in order that a wise 
choice may be made with all due consideration 

of temperament and aptitudes. The occupations 
considered run the gamut of the alphabet, from 
that, of accountant to that of waiter. The 
factory, the printing, metal, and building trades, 
office work, salesmanship, the civil service and the 

engineering professions, are lucidly placed before 

the reader in all their branches and phases 
Architecture, the law. medicine and journalism 
are include. I. with many other vocations, [n 

many Instances the personal experience of suc- 
cessful men is given in their own words, with the 
helpful Incidents Of their upward climb. The 
work deals with a subject that Cries for wider 

and more careful attention than it has received 

in the past, and we know of no brief discussion 

that better cover, the ground. 








~f 




Most 

Protec- 
tion for 




'THE tire is 

1 one of the 

vital factors to 

conserve the 

life and in- 
crease the ef- 
ficiency of the 
truck. This 
accounts for the wide 
popularity of Firestones. 



The rubber is strong enough for 
wear, but resilient enough to absorb 
those shocks and jolts which — with 
ordinary solid tires — jar the mechan- 
ism and rack the men. 

In many types, a style for every truck, 
load, road and service requirement. Each 
represents proved p rincip les of construc- 
tion — the ones that have given Firestone 
acknowledged leadership. 

Avail yourself of this definite, expert planning of 
right equipment for your particular need ami Condition. 

Write for information about our Universal Tire Service. 
J: is a bis P^rt of the Firestone value to yoa. 

FIRESTONE TIRE & RUBBER COMPANY 

'America's Largest Exclusive Tire and Rim Makers " 
Akron, Ohio — Branches and Dealers Everywhere 




Truck Tires 



WHY WELD 

When you can do better work in one-fourth the time — at 
one-fourth the price by using the latest great discovery. 

Does away w it h 

liny. No oxidi- 

tion. No flux 

ary Rui 

extremely low tem- 
Solder ^^ perature. Easily 

applied, Gasoline 

torch only thing 
needed. Twice the strength of aluminum and much 
harder -never break* nl soldered potot. Convince Vour- 

self by Trying It. Prii ■ W.«> i-' *m "* «»*• p 'p 1 "; 1 

ft nd d tire id^ By International Motor, u mobile, i ft< kaw, 
Stanley . Plerc« Vrrow , Brewster, '• Stuoebaker, Slm- 

p]exr~-Aeroplane manufacturers and ruany other comp 

Samph stick C pound) SI .60 net cash 

SO-LUMINUM MFG. AND ENGINEERING CO., INC. 

United States Rubber Co. BM*r. 

Dcpi. \ I 790 Broadway. New *ork . 

Sole Manufacturer! and owning *$<:*'} for the whole 

world in ell SO.LUMINUM. 
!) !•: MOW ST K A TIONS I 1 V K N 



• •••at Htlk 



This Man Makes *2000 
A Year Drilling Water Wells 



**T paid for my machine in less than six 
months. Every dollar's Income is now a 
dollar clear. I clean up $2,000 a year 

u Ith my 

Star Drilling Machine 

Portable — Steam or Gasoline 
"It's a business any man can handle and 
there are contracts everywhere waiting for 
you to close. I never before real ized wnai i 
profitable business well drilunff is, and the 
beauty about it is. it's an all-the-year- w 

round business." 

by n man "'ho ownff ;i Star Drilling 
M < ( h i ae. u e'll tall you what Si 
brllHiip Machines will do for you it you 
will give as ;, our name tmd address. 

Star Drilling Machine Co. 

508 Washington St., Akron, O. 





RADIUM MAKES 



Big oppor- 
t u n i t y for 
agents to 
make $1,000 
to $5,0 a 
year repre* 
s en ting us. 
Write us 
about it. 



In July, a little food, 
a little water, and a lit- 
tle loving care, insure 
a beautiful lawn and 
flowers. Top dress your 
lawn with Radium Plant 
Food, dig it in around 
your flowers and 
shrubbery — they will 
respond with spring 
vigor. Plants are living 
things and need food 
while growing. 




ADIUM 




Fertilizer (Plant Food) 

Contains nitrogen, phosphoric acid, potash and ra- 
dium. One pound will fertilize 50 sq. ft., or a plot 
10x5 ft. Sold by dealers, or i aid Kast of Missis- 
sippi River (West, add 5c lb.) as follows : 

|J8 oz, can, $ .25 2 lb. can. $ .50 

5 Lb. can, I <>() lOlh. can. 1.75 
>.-> lb. can. $3.75 

Our famous booklet. "Radium Makes Things 

Grntf," free j<>r fhr n. \Q t 

RADIUM FERTILIZER CO. 

214 Vanadium Bldg. PITTSBURGH. PA. 




If you import, export, ship coastwise or on inland waters: or by freight, express, parcel post or 
any class of mail, we have an attractive policy to offer that meets your specific requirements. 

The protection is broad, the cost moderate, and you set the benefit of our 122 years' experience. 
Even if you already have prot.->tton. it is good business judgment to let us submit quotation-. « 
place you under no obligation whatever. A request will instantly bring you full partieulai 

INSURANCE GO. QT NORTH AMERICA 

233 Walnut Street. Philadelphia 

Writer oi Insurance covering: fire, rent, tornado, automobile, motor boat, marine, tourist, i id poat, 

In^isi on i pollc) in the North A hhmI* a ! Founded 1792 , 




" Try a i find - out ' tire today 

- Old Man Mileage 

"Submit it to the sternest test oil all kinds and 
conditions of roads. Note the non-skid effective- 
ness of the famous Staggard Tread — a scientific 

arrangement of six rows of long, tough studs, which 

gives extra mileage, too." 

"And, in particular, compare it on the basis of 
ultimate cost. Note its low upkeep, its mileage, the 
uninterrupted road service it gives you. Its per- 
fection in details." 

OM Man Mileage's lest will prove t revelation to you. Try a 
"findour tire today. Write for "Old Man Mileage— His Book/' 
wh'c!) contains facts of vital Interest to every tire buyer. 

The Republic Rubber Co., Youngstown, O. 

Branches an J Aztnati in the frinrfpal Cities 



i 



\ 



\U. 



Jit 



j 









TIRES 

PLAIN, "WM* 
AND S T A 6 G A R D TREADS 



Tradk Mark Rck.U.S. Pat.OIT. 






Republic \ 

Staggard Tread 
Pat. Srpt. 15-tt, 190& 



Copyright 1914 by 

The Republic Rubber Co. 

Yeunrvtown. O. 



JUST PUBLISHED 



A New, Complete Book for every Ford Owner, Dealer, Salesman 

and Repairman. 

The Model T Ford Car 

Its Construction, Operation and Repair 





THE MODEL T 

FORD CAR 



i* ag if: 




1015 EDITION 



By VICTOR W. PAGE. M.E. 

Author of "The Modern Gasoline Automobile." etc. 

300 (5x7) Pages. Over 100 Specially Made Engrav 

ings and 2 Large Folding Plates 

Price $1.22 Postpaid 



This is the MOST COMPLETE and PRACTICAL 
instruction book ever published on the FORD CAR. 
All parts of the Ford Model T Car are described and 
illustrated in a comprehensive manner — nothing is left for the reader to guess 
at. The construction is fully treated and OPERATING PRINCIPLES 
MADE CLEAR TO EVERYONE. Complete instructions for driving and repair- 
ing are given. Every detail is treated in a non- technical yet thorough manner. 

This book is written specially for FORD DRIVERS AND OWNERS, by 

a recognized automobile engineering authority and an expert on the FORD, 
who has driven and repaired Ford Cars for a number of years. He writes 
for the average man in a praetical way from actual knowledge. ALL RE- 
PAIR PROCESSES ARE ILLUSTRATED AND FULLY EXPLAINED. 

WRITTEN SO ALL CAN UNDERSTAND— NO THEORY, NO GUESSWORK 
AUTHORITATIVE— UNBIASED— INSTRUCTIVE— COMPLETE 

Contains Special Chapters on 

1. The Ford Car. Its parts and their functions. The Ford Three Point Suspension System 
— Frame Assembly Details — Spring Construction — The Ford Body — The Ford Power Plant. Etc. 
2. The Engine and Auxiliary Groups. How the engine works, the fuel supply system, the 
carburetor, making the ignition spark, fooling and lubrication. — Induction Coil System Action Ex- 
plained — Why a Magneto Is Used on a Ford— Wiring Dry Cell Batteries — Master Vibrator Systems 
—The Ford MunMer. Etc. 3. Details of Chassis. Change speed gear, power transmission. 
differential gear aetion, steering gear, front axle, frame and springs, brakes, etc. 4. How to Drive, 
and Care ol the Ford. The control system explained, starting the motor, driving the car. locating 
roadside trouble!, tire repairs, oiling the chassis, winter care of ear. — Lighting System — Electric 
Lighting for Ford Cars— A Typical Engine Stop Analyzed — Conditions that Cause Failure of the 
Ignition S\ st tin— Common Defects in Fuel Systems — Adjusting Transmission — Adjusting Loos 
Front Wheels— What to Do When Hear Brakes Do Not Hold. Etc. 5. Overhauling and Re- 
pairing Mechanism. Systematic location of troubles an I remedies — Faults in Power Plant and 
Symptoms — Vahn- of System in Overhauling — How to Take Down Motor — Carbon Deposits and 
Their Removal— -How to Itepair Cracked Water Jacket. — Reseating and Truing Valves — Method 
of Valve <i rinding— Inspection of Piston Kings — Piston Ring Manipulation— Pitting Piston Rings 
— Wrist Pin Wear — Inspection and R< lining of Engine Bearings — Knocking Indicates Loose 
Bearings — Adjusting Main Hearings — Scraping Bearing to Fit — Rebabbitting Connecting Rod — 
Testing Bearing Parallelism — Camshafts and Timing Gears — How.to Time Valves in Ford Engines 
— Repairing Ford Magneto — Packings and Casket* for Ford Engines — Precautions in Reassembling 
Parts — How to Take Down Transmission — Relining Brake Bands — Rear Axle Troubles and 
Remedies — Care of Springs — Steering Gear Repairs — Miscellaneous Chassis Parts. Etc.. Etc. 

The illustrated chapter on repairing and overhauling alone is worth many times the price of this book. 

MUNN & CO., Inc. 

233 Broadway Wool worth Building New York, N. Y. 



\ \ 



I 






1 

1 








• 



I 



/ 






1 



.